Updated on 2024/02/02

写真a

 
MATSUI Tomoko
 
Organization
Faculty of Letters Professor
Other responsible organization
English Studies Course of Graduate School of Letters, Master's Program
English Studies Course of Graduate School of Letters, Doctoral Program
Contact information
The inquiry by e-mail is 《here
External link

Degree

  • Doctor of Philosophy ( University College London )

  • Master of Arts ( University College London )

Education

  • 1995.10
     

    University College London   Department of Phonetics & Linguistics, PhD Course   doctor course   completed

  • 1988.9
     

    University College London   Department of English, MA Course   master course   completed

  • 1987.3
     

    Waseda University   graduated

  • 1985.3
     

    Waseda University   graduated

Research History

  • 2021.4 -  

    中央大学文学部教授

Professional Memberships

  • 日本英語学会

  • 日本語用論学会

  • 日本言語科学会

  • 日本発達心理学会

  • 日本心理学会

  • 日本認知科学会

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Research Interests

  • コミュニケーション

  • Language

  • Communication

  • 心の理論

  • 言語

  • Theory of mind

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Cognitive science

Papers

  • Context-prosody interaction in sarcasm comprehension: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study Reviewed

    Tagiru Nakamura, Tomoko Matsui, Akira Utsumi, Motofumi Sumiya, Eri Nakagawa, Norihiro Sadato

    Neuropsychologia   170   108213 - 108213   2022.6

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2022.108213

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  • School Readiness in Language-Minority Dual Language Learners in Japan: Language, Executive Function, and Theory of Mind Reviewed

    Mioko Sudo, Tomoko Matsui

    The Journal of Genetic Psychology   182 ( 6 )   375 - 390   2021.11

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    Authorship:Corresponding author   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Informa UK Limited  

    DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2021.1930994

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  • Developmental changes in understanding emotion in speech in children in Japan and the United States

    Shinnosuke Ikeda, Mioko Sudo, Tomoko Matsui, Etsuko Haryu

    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   60   2021.10

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC  

    The present study investigated how 91 3- and 5-year-old children in Japan and the United States (U.S.) attended to lexical cues (i.e., what is said) and paralinguistic cues (i.e., how it is said) when inferring emotion from speech, as well as the cognitive mechanisms potentially underlying attention to such cues. Japanese children were less likely to be influenced by lexical cues than U. S. children when inferring emotion from speech with conflicting lexical and paralinguistic cues. Moreover, executive function and theory of mind were related to a reduced reliance on lexical cues for Japanese children, while such relationships were negligible for U.S. children. Such crosscultural differences in emotional processing may arise from differences in cultural demands to attend to paralinguistic cues.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2021.101110

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  • Perception of native and non-native phonemic contrasts in children with autistic spectrum disorder: effects of speaker variability

    Tomoko Matsui, Mariko Uchida, Hiroshi Fujino, Yoshikuni Tojo, Koichiro Hakarino

    CLINICAL LINGUISTICS & PHONETICS   2021.7

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC  

    The current study investigated speech perception in children with ASD by directly comparing discrimination accuracy of phonemic contrasts in the native and non-native languages. The effect of speaker variability on phoneme perception was also examined. We also explored the relation between language impairment and accuracy in phoneme discrimination in children with ASD. Significant differences in performance were found between the ASD and TD groups on discrimination of the native phonemic contrasts. By contrast, no difference was found between the two groups on discrimination of the non-native phonemic contrasts. Further subgroup analysis revealed that the ALN group (ASD without language delay or impairment) showed significantly higher discrimination accuracy for the native syllable contrasts than the non-native counterpart. No significant difference was found in the discrimination accuracy between the native and non-native phonemic contrasts in the ALD group (ASD with language delay or impairment). The effect of speaker viability on phoneme discrimination was observed in the TD group but not in the ASD subgroups. Nonverbal reasoning ability was highly related to discrimination accuracy of both the native and non-native phonemic contrasts in children with ASD. The results of the present study suggest that speech perception in children with ASD is not as attuned to their native language as in their TD peers. Our findings also indicate that language delay or impairment is related to difficulty in perception of native phonemes in children with ASD.

    DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2021.1947385

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  • Knowing minds: Culture and perceptions of mental state access

    Matthew Wice, Minoru Karasawa, Tomoko Matsui, Joan G. Miller

    ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY   23 ( 3 )   319 - 327   2020.9

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY  

    How does culture influence the ways in which individuals reflect upon their knowledge of others' mental states? We addressed this question in a two-study cross-cultural investigation examining perceptions of mental state access in the United States and Japan. Study 1 (n = 100) revealed that American participants reported greater mental state access than did Japanese participants. Study 2 (n = 146) showed that both Americans and Japanese perceived greater access to the mental states of a close friend relative to a casual friend and that the observed cultural differences in perceived mental state access to a close friend's mental states were mediated by how much access was considered appropriate. Overall, the results indicate that culturally variable norms specifying appropriate levels of mental state access play an important role in how individuals estimate their knowledge of other people's minds in close relationships.

    DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12404

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  • Verbal display rule knowledge: A cultural and developmental perspective

    Matthew Wice, Tomoko Matsui, Gen Tsudaka, Minoru Karasawa, Joan G. Miller

    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   52   2019.10

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC  

    The current investigation examined the development of verbal display rule knowledge among three age groups (elementary school children, adolescents, and adults) from the U.S. and Japan (N = 183). Participants predicted verbal display rule behavior (i.e. regulating the verbal expression of emotion in alignment with social norms) and motives in response to two scenarios: a) a conflicting opinions scenario in which two peers hold conflicting opinions, and b) a welfare scenario in which expressing a true opinion is likely to cause emotional harm. Cultural differences in response to the conflicting opinions scenario emerged gradually over development, with Japanese adults endorsing greater emotion regulation than American adults; children and adolescents in both countries, however, endorsed similar degrees of emotion expression. In response to the welfare scenario, Japanese and Americans both endorsed the use of masking display rules to protect the welfare of others, with display rule endorsement increasing with age for both groups. Results contribute to a greater understanding of how display rule knowledge changes over the course of development in a manner that is both culturally variable and context-specific.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2019.100801

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  • Cross-Cultural Differences in the Valuing of Dominance by Young Children

    Rawan Charafeddine, Hugo Mercier, Takahiro Yamada, Tomoko Matsui, Mioko Sudo, Patrick Germain, Stephane Bernard, Thomas Castelain, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst

    JOURNAL OF COGNITION AND CULTURE   19 ( 3-4 )   256 - 272   2019.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS  

    Developmental research suggests that young children tend to value dominant individuals over subordinates. This research, however, has nearly exclusively been carried out in Western cultures, and cross-cultural research among adults has revealed cultural differences in the valuing of dominance. In particular, it seems that Japanese culture, relative to many Western cultures, values dominance less. We conducted two experiments to test whether this difference would be observed in preschoolers. In Experiment 1, preschoolers in France and in Japan were asked to identify with either a dominant or a subordinate. French preschoolers identified with the dominant, but Japanese preschoolers were at chance. Experiment 2 revealed that Japanese preschoolers were more likely to believe a subordinate than a dominant individual, both compared to chance and compared to previous findings among French preschoolers. The convergent results from both experiments thus reveal an early emerging cross-cultural difference in the valuing of dominance.

    DOI: 10.1163/15685373-12340058

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  • Japanese preschoolers' evaluation of circular and non-circular arguments

    Hugo Mercier, Mioko Sudo, Thomas Castelain, Stephane Bernard, Tomoko Matsui

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY   15 ( 5 )   493 - 505   2018

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    Observational and experimental data have revealed that preschoolers possess some argumentation skills, both in the production and the evaluation of arguments. However, these skills might have been fostered by the particular cultural context of Western middle- and upper-classes families, to which most children studied belong. Some data suggests that children in other cultures possess at least some of these skills, but no experimental data had been gathered in Eastern cultures. These cultures are supposed to frown on argumentation, and might thus be less conducive to the early development of argumentation skills. We test the emergence of argument evaluation skills in Japanese 5-year-olds by presenting them with a choice between endorsing a strong, perceptual argument, and a weak, circular argument. A first experiment revealed a trend in the direction of the strong argument. A second experiment that addresses some methodological concerns of the first demonstrates a significant tendency to follow the strong argument. These results are similar to those previously gathered in two other cultures (Swiss and Maya), and suggest that some basic argumentation skills are early developing across cultures.

    DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2017.1308250

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  • The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension

    Tagiru Nakamura, Tomoko Matsui, Akira Utsumi, Mika Yamazaki, Kai Makita, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C. Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato

    SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE   13 ( 5 )   553 - 565   2018

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

    DOI: 10.1080/17470919.2017.1365760

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  • The relationship between non-cognitive and cognitive development of children in the high quality kindergarten.

    Kyoko Iwatate, Sayuri Nishizaka, Chisato Kusumoto, Tomoko Matsui, Shizuo Iwatate

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY   51   497 - 497   2016.7

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    Language:English   Publisher:ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

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  • The role of prosody and context in sarcasm comprehension: Behavioral and fMRI evidence

    Tomoko Matsui, Tagiru Nakamura, Akira Utsumi, Akihiro T. Sasaki, Takahiko Koike, Yumiko Yoshida, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C. Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato

    NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA   87   74 - 84   2016.7

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    A hearer's perception of an utterance as sarcastic depends on integration of the heard statement, the discourse context, and the prosody of the utterance, as well as evaluation of the incongruity among these aspects. The effect of prosody in sarcasm comprehension is evident in everyday conversation, but little is known about its underlying mechanism or neural substrates. To elucidate the neural underpinnings of sarcasm comprehension in the auditory modality, we conducted a functional MRI experiment with 21 adult participants. The participants were provided with a short vignette in which a child had done either a good or bad deed, about which a parent made a positive comment. The participants were required to judge the degree of the sarcasm in the parent's positive comment (praise), which was accompanied by either positive or negative affective prosody. The behavioral data revealed that an incongruent combination of utterance and the context (i.e., the parent's positive comment on a bad deed by the child) induced perception of sarcasm. There was a significant interaction between context and prosody: sarcasm perception was enhanced when positive prosody was used in the context of a bad deed or, vice versa, when negative prosody was used in the context of a good deed. The corresponding interaction effect was observed in the rostro-ventral portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus corresponding to Brodmann's Area (BA) 47. Negative prosody incongruent with a positive utterance (praise) activated the bilateral insula extending to the right inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and brainstem. Our findings provide evidence that the left inferior frontal gyrus, particularly BA 47, is involved in integration of discourse context and utterance with affective prosody in the comprehension of sarcasm. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.04.031

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  • Young children's early sensitivity to linguistic indications of speaker certainty in their selective word learning

    Tomoko Matsui, Taeko Yamamoto, Yui Miura, Peter McCagg

    LINGUA   175   83 - 96   2016.5

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER  

    In everyday conversation, both children and adults have an expectation that the speaker is telling the truth. In reality, however, this expectation is not always fulfilled, and both children and adults are equipped with a capacity for epistemic vigilance, i.e. a capacity to assess the speaker's trustworthiness in order to avoid being misinformed. The hearer's assessment of the speaker's trustworthiness is based on two criteria: his ability to provide true information and his benevolence toward the hearer. In two studies, we investigated how young children use these criteria, by focusing on two indicators of trustworthiness: linguistic expressions of speaker certainty, and personal familiarity. In the first study, both 3- and 4-year-olds were successful in distinguishing the degree of speaker certainty expressed by linguistic indicators and using it to assess the trustworthiness of the speaker. In the second study, children's ability to assess the speaker's trustworthiness on the basis of his attitude of certainty was further scrutinized. When pitted against personal familiarity, children's bias toward the certain speaker was modified in 5-year-olds but not 3 year-olds. The difference between the two age groups suggests that epistemic vigilance consists of a set of distinct components, with different developmental timelines. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2015.10.007

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  • Pragmatic development in Ll, L2, L3: Its biological and cultural foundations

    Elly Ifantidou, Tomoko Matsui

    JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS   59   1 - 4   2013.12

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    Language:English   Publisher:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.11.010

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  • Developing sensitivity to the sources of information: Early use of the Japanese quotative particles tte and to in mother-child conversation

    Tomoko Matsui, Taeko Yamamoto

    JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS   59   5 - 25   2013.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER  

    The ability of infants and toddlers to imitate words they hear promotes early word learning. Their imitation of words gradually grows into proper quotation of words and utterances, in which the original source of the utterance is formally acknowledged. Little is known, however, about the development of children's ability to quote a variety of linguistic inputs. On the basis of previous findings in theory-of-mind research and cognitive pragmatics, we adopted the following working hypotheses: children will (a) quote onomatopoeia and words earlier and more frequently than utterances; (b) first quote utterances concerning desires and emotions and later quote utterances expressing thoughts; and (c) base early quotations on resemblance in form rather than resemblance in meaning. These hypotheses were tested in a study of Japanese quotative particles in recorded conversations between a mother and her child. The data are intensive and longitudinal, and detailed analyses of their conversational content generally support the hypotheses, with one important difference. Contrary to our first hypothesis, the child quoted utterances as often as onomatopoeia and words, the majority of which were imagined utterances attributed to the child's non-human companions. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.06.008

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  • Absence of spontaneous action anticipation by false belief attribution in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Atsushi Senju, Victoria Southgate, Yui Miura, Tomoko Matsui, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Yoshikuni Tojo, Hiroo Osanai, Gergely Csibra

    DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY   22 ( 2 )   353 - 360   2010.5

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS  

    Recently, a series of studies demonstrated false belief understanding in young children through completely nonverbal measures. These studies have revealed that children younger than 3 years of age, who consistently fail the standard verbal false belief test, can anticipate others' actions based on their attributed false beliefs. The current study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who are known to have difficulties in the verbal false belief test, may also show such action anticipation in a nonverbal false belief test. We presented video stimuli of an actor watching an object being hidden in a box. The object was then displaced while the actor was looking away. We recorded children's eye movements and coded whether they spontaneously anticipated the actor's subsequent behavior, which could only have been predicted if they had attributed a false belief to her. Although typically developing children correctly anticipated the action, children with ASD failed to show such action anticipation. The results suggest that children with ASD have an impairment in false belief attribution, which is independent of their verbal ability.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0954579410000106

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  • Understanding of speaker certainty and false-belief reasoning: a comparison of Japanese and German preschoolers

    Tomoko Matsui, Hannes Rakoczy, Yui Miura, Michael Tomasello

    DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE   12 ( 4 )   602 - 613   2009.7

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    It has been repeatedly shown that when asked to identify a protagonist's false belief on the basis of his false statement, English-speaking 3-year-olds dismiss the statement and fail to attribute to him a false belief. In the present studies, we tested 3-year-old Japanese children in a similar task, using false statements accompanied by grammaticalized particles of speaker (un)certainty, as in everyday Japanese utterances. The Japanese children were directly compared with same-aged German children, whose native language does not have grammaticalized epistemic concepts. Japanese children profited from the explicit statement of the protagonist's false belief when it was marked with the attitude of certainty in a way that German children did not - presumably because Japanese but not German children must process such marking routinely in their daily discourse. These results are discussed in the broader context of linguistic and theory of mind development.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00812.x

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  • Children's Understanding of Certainty and Evidentiality: Advantage of Grammaticalized Forms Over Lexical Alternatives

    Tomoko Matsui, Yui Miura

    EVIDENTIALITY: A WINDOW INTO LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   125   63 - 77   2009

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY PERIODICALS  

    In verbal communication, the hearer takes advantage of the linguistic expressions of certainty and evidentiality to assess how committed the speaker might be to the truth of the informational content of the utterance. Little is known, however, about the precise developmental mechanism of this ability. In this chapter, we approach the question by elucidating factors that are likely to constrain young children's understanding of linguistically encoded certainty and evidentiality, including the types of linguistic form of these expressions, namely, grammaticalized or lexical forms. (C) Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    DOI: 10.1002/cd.250

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  • Knowing How We Know: Evidentiality and Cognitive Development

    Tomoko Matsui, Stanka A. Fitneva

    EVIDENTIALITY: A WINDOW INTO LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   125   1 - 11   2009

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY PERIODICALS  

    Evidentials are grammatical elements such as affixes and particles indicating the source of knowledge. We provide an overview of this grammatical category and consider three research domains to which developmental studies on evidentiality contribute: the acquisition of linguistic means to characterize knowledge, the conceptual understanding of knowledge sources, and the evaluation of others' testimony. We also consider the study of evidentiality in relation to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis about the influence of language on thought. (C) Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    DOI: 10.1002/cd.246

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Research Projects

  • Theoretical and Empirical Research on Linguistic Knowledge and Performance among Second / Third Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    Grant number:22H00680  2022.4 - 2026.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Chuo University

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    Grant amount: \14820000 ( Direct Cost: \11400000 、 Indirect Cost: \3420000 )

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  • 自閉スペクトラム症児の「聞き取り」と「読み取り」の困難さの要因を探る実証研究

    Grant number:19H01753  2019.4 - 2023.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)  基盤研究(B) 

    松井 智子, 藤野 博, 篠原 靖明

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    Grant amount: \16250000 ( Direct Cost: \12500000 、 Indirect Cost: \3750000 )

    本研究では、自閉スペクトラム症児の音素認知能力の躓きがどこにあるか探るため、行動実験と脳波計測実験の両面から調査を行うことを目的としている。
    本年度は、実験で使用するための刺激音を作成するため、日本語話者及び英語話者によるそれぞれの言語の音声を録音し、またその録音データから実験で使用するための刺激音を作成した。さらにその刺激音を用いて行動実験を開始し、自閉スペクトラム症児の聞き取りの躓きが、音響/音声レベルと音韻レベルのどちらにあるのか、検討した。
    さらに自閉スペクトラム症児と定型発達児を対象に,読解力に強い関連のある「心の理論」と,各種言語能力の関係について検討した。心の理論の発達については標準的誤信念課題(一次と二次)で評価した。語彙力はPVT-R絵画語彙検査で測定し,文法理解力をJ.COSS日本語理解力テスト,文法表出力を松井が開発した文復唱課題で測定した。その結果、自閉スペクトラム症児は、誤信念課題と言語能力(語彙力、文法理解力、文法表出力)に強い相関がみられた一方、定型発達児は誤信念課題と語彙力のみに相関がみられた。

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  • 多言語環境における学習言語の発達: 家庭言語の役割に着目した縦断的実証研究

    Grant number:18KK0060  2018.10 - 2023.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 国際共同研究加速基金(国際共同研究強化(B))  国際共同研究加速基金(国際共同研究強化(B))  東京学芸大学

    松井 智子, 塘 利枝子, 三浦 優生, 権藤 桂子

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    Grant amount: \17680000 ( Direct Cost: \13600000 、 Indirect Cost: \4080000 )

    本研究は、「二言語相互依存モデル」に基づき、英国に在住し、第二言語で教育を受ける日本人児童を対象に、第一言語の発達が就学後の学習言語の発達にどのように影響するかを検証する。具体的には、①参加児童の日本語と英語の発達を多角的、縦断的に検討し、その結果を国内外の教育現場で使える査定ツールの開発につなげること、②乳幼児期の家庭での言語経験と学習言語の発達との関係を検証し、家庭の支援と教育現場の指導に生かせるエビデンスとして提供することを目的とする。
    ロンドン補習授業校の協力を得て、小学1年生の保護者を対象として、子どもの言語発達と家庭環境に関する質問紙調査を実施した。さらにロンドンの補習校の新1年生をリクルートし、7月から9月までの間に、日本語と英語の語彙力、文法力、ナラティブの力を含めた言語能力に関する実験的調査と、非言語認知力、社会的認知能力を含めた認知能力に関する実験的調査を行った。また10月以降に日本人モノリンガル児を対象とした調査を実施した。質問紙調査の結果および言語発達の解析を行った。子どもの家庭環境に基づいて、国際結婚家庭、日本人両親家庭で長期滞在、日本人両親家庭で短期滞在の3つのグループに分けて比較を行った。また実験的調査に参加した児童の日英二言語能力に関して。個別にフィードバックを行った。
    7月から9月の間に、実験的調査に参加した小学1年児童の母親を対象とする聞き取り調査を行った。加えてロンドン補習授業校の高等部に在籍する生徒を対象とする聞き取り調査も行った。これらについては分析を行い、高等部生徒を対象とする聞き取り調査については論文としてまとめることができた。

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  • 多文化・多言語環境で育つ子どもの発達障害の査定と支援

    Grant number:18K03159  2018.4 - 2023.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(C)  同志社女子大学

    塘 利枝子, 松井 智子, 権藤 桂子

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    Grant amount: \3900000 ( Direct Cost: \3000000 、 Indirect Cost: \900000 )

    研究代表者である塘は、東海地方や関西地方の就学前施設において、多文化・多言語環境で育つ子どものフィールドワークを行おうと計画をしていたが、新型コロナウイルスによって現地に伺うことができなかった。そこで、近隣の就学前施設でのフィールドワークや、リモート等による保育者への発達相談などを行いながら、保育者が捉えている日系ブラジル人の幼児や中国籍の幼児の発達の中での困りごとについてのデータを収集した。
    その結果、前年度注目した言語発達だけではなく、運動発達や認知発達についても課題が上がってきた。コロナウイルスの関係で他児との関わりが制限されたことによる遅れなのか、就学前施設や家庭との間で言語が異なりいずれの言語においても年齢相当の水準に達していない影響により認知発達が遅れているのかについて、見極めの困難性があがってきた。
    また日系ブラジル人に焦点を当てながら、幼児期と児童期の言語発達との関係、親の日本語使用と子どもの日本語使用困難度との関係などについてもグーグルアンケートによる調査を行い、親の日本語使用困難度と子どもの日本語使用困難度との間に有意な相関があることを見出した。
    今後は新型コロナウイルス等による行動範囲の制限といった環境要因と、子どもの言語発達、そして運動・社会性・認知発達等の領域の発達との関係性について注目していきたい。新型コロナウイルスが収束し次第、東海地方の就学前施設においても調査や検査を再開する予定である。
    研究分担者においては、権藤が2言語による語彙発達評価を行い、発達障害の重要な見極めとなる2言語の表出言語ついての調査を行った。しかし新型コロナウイルスの関係で東海地方や東京の就学前施設での調査・検査がほとんどできなかった。今後、新型コロナウイルスの収束状況を見ながら調査・検査を再開する予定である。

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  • Building of a Japanese 1000 person natural conversation corpus for pragmatic analyses and its multilateral studies

    Grant number:18H03581  2018.4 - 2022.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics

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    Grant amount: \43810000 ( Direct Cost: \33700000 、 Indirect Cost: \10110000 )

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  • Cognitive Science Study on the Process of Language Development

    Grant number:17H06382  2017.6 - 2022.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)  Tokyo Denki University

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    Grant amount: \163020000 ( Direct Cost: \125400000 、 Indirect Cost: \37620000 )

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  • 言葉と情動スキルを伸ばす早期介入プログラムの検討:貧困の連鎖を断ち切るために

    Grant number:18K18688  2018.6 - 2021.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(萌芽)  挑戦的研究(萌芽)  東京学芸大学

    松井 智子

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    Grant amount: \6110000 ( Direct Cost: \4700000 、 Indirect Cost: \1410000 )

    本研究は探索的な研究として、「ポピュレーションアプローチ(大規模調査)」ではなく、より規模の小さい「ハイリスクアプローチ」に基づき、言語発達遅滞など、子のリスク要因が確認された2歳から3歳の子を持つハイリスク家庭を対象とした介入研究である。言葉の遅れを主訴として相談に訪れた、子のリスク要因がわかっている母子と、貧困、低学歴に加えて、文化的マイノリティであるため必要な支援を受けにくいなど親のリスク要因がわかっている国内の日系外国人家庭を対象とする。
    平成31年度は引き続き言語発達遅滞が見られる3歳児とその母親の会話データを収集するとともに、子どもの家庭での言語使用に関する質問紙調査を実施した。また昨年度収集した国内の日系外国人家庭の母子会話データを書き起こし、さらに日本語訳をつけるところまで進めることができた。

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  • Attempts of Assessment and Special Support for Language-Minority Children Based on Their Heritage Language

    Grant number:17H02718  2017.4 - 2021.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Kyoritsu Women's University

    GONDO KEIKO

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    Grant amount: \8190000 ( Direct Cost: \6300000 、 Indirect Cost: \1890000 )

    Based on the results of the study, we were able to propose the following points regarding the evaluation and support of language development of linguistic minority children(Brazilian children living in Japan). They are: (1)Evaluation in two languages, Japanese and their first language(inherited language) and comprehensive evaluation of linguistic environmental factors; (2) Support from early childhood to reduce difficulties in learning and social life after entering school; (3) Parents and caregivers should reduce instructions and directions to children and be close to children's intersts and talking to children in a way that expands the context of conversation; (4) Conduct childcare activities tha form linguistic concepts, such as reading picture books individually and repeatedly to children, and (5) Provide support measures to alleviate the sense of trouble for parents to use Japanese.

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  • Acquisition of theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder and related factors

    Grant number:17K04920  2017.4 - 2020.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Tokyo Gakugei University

    FUJINO Hiroshi

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    Grant amount: \4160000 ( Direct Cost: \3200000 、 Indirect Cost: \960000 )

    This study investigates the development of theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its related factors. The outcomes are as follows. (1) Children with ASD read significantly less fiction books than typically developing children. Conversely, a significant correlation was observed between the passing number of theory of mind tasks and number of fiction books whose titles were recognized. This result suggests that the development of theory of mind promotes interest in fiction books. (2) Children with ASD pass false-belief tasks until fourth grade with the increase in verbal age. However, language ability is an insufficient factor for passing such tasks. (3) In children with ASD, explicit false-belief task performance increases with vocabulary; however, implicit false-belief task performance, which is measured by eye tracking, evinces no change.

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  • Developing Test of Pragamatic Language

    Grant number:15H03512  2015.4 - 2019.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Kanazawa University

    Oi Manabu

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    Grant amount: \15600000 ( Direct Cost: \12000000 、 Indirect Cost: \3600000 )

    Japanese test of pragmatic language was developed to assess preschool and school-age children. The test contains items to evaluate figurative language such as metaphor, irony, and indirect request other than politeness control and the like.
    The test was revealed to hit the development of pragmatic language from preschool to lower grades of elementary school and to discriminate children with autism spectrum disorder from typically developing children. The correlation coefficients between the test and Children's Communication Checklist-2 were relatively low while some of them were significant. The test was considered to identify children with ASD from a different angle than CCC-2.

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  • Children's understanding of contextual informaion in verbal communication

    Grant number:15H03450  2015.4 - 2019.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Tokyo Gakugei University

    MATSUI Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \16510000 ( Direct Cost: \12700000 、 Indirect Cost: \3810000 )

    The aim of the research project is to investigate how children’s ability to understand the speaker’s intentions and emotions in interpersonal communication develops. We conducted two separate studies to look at how children understand the speaker’s intentions and emotions that are communicated implicitly.
    The first study examined how typically developing children and children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) understand vocal emotion. The second study examined how mothers use mental state terms toward their children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

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  • Cognitive Development in Children of a Permanent Resident in Japan

    Grant number:15K13128  2015.4 - 2018.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research  Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research  Tokyo Gakugei University

    MATSUI Tomoko, GONDO Keiko

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    Grant amount: \3250000 ( Direct Cost: \2500000 、 Indirect Cost: \750000 )

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bilingual experiences on the cognitive development of socioeconomically disadvantaged minority children in Japan. We compared the performance of 17 low-socio-economic status (SES) Brazilian 5-year-olds, who were Portuguese-Japanese bilinguals, to 17 age-matched middle-SES Japanese monolinguals on measures of executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). Despite the bilinguals’ lower SES and verbal ability, there were no mono-bilingual differences in measures of EF. However, the monolingual children outperformed the bilingual children on measures of ToM. The results suggest that bilingualism had protective effects on the Brazilian children’s EF, but such effects did not extend to their ToM development in the face of syntactic delay.

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  • The relationship between theory of mind, language, and executive function in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Grant number:26381311  2014.4 - 2017.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Tokyo Gakugei University

    Fujino Hiroshi, Matsui TOMOKO, MORIWAKI Aiko, HAKARINO Koichiro

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    Grant amount: \4420000 ( Direct Cost: \3400000 、 Indirect Cost: \1020000 )

    In the first study, we investigated the relationship among theory of mind, language and executive function in school-aged children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It was found that a significant predictor of passing was verbal age for the ‘Sally-Anne’ type false-belief task, and the planning score for the ‘Smarties’ type task and the second order false-belief task. These findings suggest that theory of mind at a higher level requires executive function. In the second study, we investigated the effect of verbal proposition cues related to the basic principle of false-belief. The ‘seeing leads to knowing’ principle was provided verbally before the belief question. It was found that verbal proposition cues facilitate false-belief reasoning in ASD children with a verbal age of 10 years who can understand the false-belief principle and generalize from it.

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  • Developmental Origins of "We": Empirical Approaches to the First-person Plural.

    Grant number:26280049  2014.4 - 2017.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Kyushu University

    Hashiya Kazuhide, MENG Xianwei, UTO Yusuke, MAEYAMA Kouki

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    Grant amount: \11180000 ( Direct Cost: \8600000 、 Indirect Cost: \2580000 )

    This study empirically approached the developmental origin of the concept of "We", the first-person plural. To approach the development of production of "we", the authors analyzed data derived from Corpus. To approach responsive aspect, the authors developed a new experimental paradigm that require the participants to portion the reward between 2 agents, after experiences the true/selfish/altruistic utterance that included "we" and other pronouns (I/he(she)=other). TD children robustly showed a tendency to reflect the utterance on sharing, while ASD children did not show such tendency.

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  • Language and cognitive development in children who grow up in multilingual/multicultural environment

    Grant number:24402043  2012.4 - 2016.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Tokyo Gakugei University

    Matsui Tomoko, Gondo Keiko, Inada Motoko

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    Grant amount: \17420000 ( Direct Cost: \13400000 、 Indirect Cost: \4020000 )

    Patterns of language development are diversifying for children who move across cultures in their infancy or early childhood and grow up in environments where the home and societal language differ. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary data on the language development of Japanese children in their preschool or early schools years within a multicultural and multilingual environment, as well as their parents’ approach to education and language acquisition. This study specifically targeted Japanese families residing in a district in the United States where there is a variety of educational opportunities in Japanese and English.

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  • Model-free and model-based learning mechanism for lexical acquisition

    Grant number:23120003  2011.4 - 2016.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)  Keio University

    IMAI Mutsumi, MATSUI Tomoko, OKADA Hiroyuki, KITAJO Keiichi, TOMONAGA Masaki

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    Grant amount: \88270000 ( Direct Cost: \67900000 、 Indirect Cost: \20370000 )

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. We hypothesized that three cognitive skills play a critical role: sound-symbolism; symmetry (bidirectional) inference bias; and inference for other individuals’ intent. We experimentally established that: (1) Preverbal infants map auditory words onto visual input by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network. With fMRI study, we identified the right posterior STS as the key area for processing sound symbolic words. 2) In a cross-species comparison study with comparable procedure, human infants posses the symmetry inference bias but chimpanzees did not. 3) In inferring the reference of a novel word, 24-month-old infants are able to infer the speaker’s confidence, and believed that the object that the more confident speaker mapped the novel word would be the correct reference.

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  • Assessing anxiety in individuals with autism: towards effective support

    Grant number:23330271  2011.4 - 2015.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Ibaraki University

    TOJO Yoshikuni, ARAI Hideyasu, SHOJI Hiroaki, MATSUI Tomoko, HATSUZUKA Makiko, MIURA Yui, HASEGAWA Toshikazu, YAGUCHI Kiyoshi, KONNO Michiko, AKECHI Hironori, ASADA Kousuke, HIRAYAMA Taichi, HIROKI Satoshi, KIKUCHI Yukiko, KURAMOCHI Hikaru, NAKAYAMA Masato, OSANAI Hiroo, SENJU Atsushi, SOGABE Kazuhiro, SUZUKI Emiko, TAJIMA Yasuyoshi, TAKEFUTA Haruna, TAKI Asuka, WATANABE Kikue

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    Grant amount: \17810000 ( Direct Cost: \13700000 、 Indirect Cost: \4110000 )

    This study examined anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We especially focused on the following topics and conducted the studies: (1) Understanding of affective prosody assessed by eye-tracking methodology. (2) Anxiety and behavior of children with ASD and their mothers affected by the great east Japan earthquakes. (3) Eye-gaze patterns associated with social anxiety during conversation. (4) Support for the anxiety of mothers and children with ASD. (5) Considering the perspective of the constitutional rights to improve support and special needs education for people with ASD. Our obtained results from the studies above would provide favorable reference data for the development of effective support for ASD people suffering from anxiety.

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  • Comprehensive research of role language

    Grant number:23320087  2011.4 - 2015.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Osaka University

    KINSUI Satoshi, MOTOHAMA Hidehiko, YAMAKIDO Hiroko, OKAZAKI Tomoko, SUGA Sayaka, MATSUI Tomoko, JUNG Hyeseon, TESHIGAWARA Mihoko, OKAZAKI Tomoko, YAMAGUCHI Haruhiko, NISHIDA Takamasa, YOSHIMURA Kazuma, IWATA Miho, FUJIMOTO Mariko, OTAGAKI Satoshi

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    Grant amount: \17290000 ( Direct Cost: \13300000 、 Indirect Cost: \3990000 )

    A particular expression (in terms of vocabulary, grammar, set phrases, intonation and speech tempo) can be sometimes linked to its speaker’s personal makeup: age, gender, occupation, social class, generation, looks and personality. Such expressions are called role language.
    The goals of this project were five-fold: (i) to further develop the theory of role language, (ii) to develop comparative studies of role language, (iii) to study role language vocabulary in Japanese historically, (iv) to investigate the history of various types of role language, and (v) to extend role language studies to relevant fields.

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  • Attempt to assess special educational needs in multilingual environments:From a satandpoint of interaction between multilingualism and developmental disorders

    Grant number:23330279  2011.4 - 2014.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Kyoritsu Women's University

    GONDO Keiko, MATSUI Tomoko, OI Manabu

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    Grant amount: \8840000 ( Direct Cost: \6800000 、 Indirect Cost: \2040000 )

    Characteristics of language and communication development were examined among typically developing children and developmentally disordered children both raised in multicultural multilingual environments by assessing vocabulary comprehension and grammatical comprehension in both Japanese and English. Children's parents were asked to fill out a questionaire to examine children's linguistic environment. There was a tendency that vocabulary comprehension was affected by impartial knowledge and experience due to cultural difference both among typically developing children and developmentally disordered children. As for grammatical comprehension, relatively normal developmental patterns were observed among typically developing children while atypical developmental patterns were recognized among developmentally disordered children.
    In addition, it was recognized that family support system takes an important role in order to provide better support for the children.

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  • Communication as a Tool for Promoting Interpersonal Relationships: A Linguistic-Psychological Model and Its Practical Applications

    Grant number:23330194  2011.4 - 2014.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Nagoya University

    KARASAWA Minoru, OKAMOTO Shin'ichiro, MATSUI Tomoko, HOTTA Syugo, UCHIDA Yukiko, YOSHINARI Yuko

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    Grant amount: \11570000 ( Direct Cost: \8900000 、 Indirect Cost: \2670000 )

    We attempted to construct a theoretical model that can explain the inter-relationship between cognitive processes and particular language use in the context of interpersonal relations including the process of cultural adaptation and conflict resolution. In order to test some of the propositions in the model, a series of empirical studies were conducted, mainly on the basis of experimental methods. We also revealed the role of culture as a basis for cognition and linguistic acts. Symposia and workshops were organize at different conferences to present the findings.

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  • Autistic children's understanding of mental and emotional states in conversation: The role of prosody

    Grant number:20330136  2008.4 - 2014.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

    MATSUI Tomoko, TOJO Yoshikuni, YAGUCHI Kiyoshi, NAKAMURA Tagiru, MIURA Yui

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    Grant amount: \28860000 ( Direct Cost: \22200000 、 Indirect Cost: \6660000 )

    The goal of this study is to investigate how and to what extent high-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorder (HFASD) understand the speaker's mental and emotional states on the bass of prosodic cues. We conducted a series of experiments to examine if and how school-aged HFASD children understand (a) the speaker's intentions and beliefs behind verbal sarcasm and (b) the speaker's feelings and degree of confidence about the content of the utterance. Two main findings were obtained. First, when the utterance includes mental or emotional vocabulary, HFASD children prioritize the semantic information over the prosodic information in the utterance in order to infer the speaker's mental and emotional states. Second, when the difference among a variety of tone of voices is salient enough, however, HFASD children are able to utilize the prosodic information to infer the speaker's mental and emotional states behind the utterance.

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  • 広汎性発達障害におけるプロソディ理解力の生理学的指標の確立

    Grant number:22591277  2010.10 - 2013.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(C)  金沢大学

    下道 喜代美, 菊知 充, 松井 智子, 棟居 俊夫, 新井田 要

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    Grant amount: \3770000 ( Direct Cost: \2900000 、 Indirect Cost: \870000 )

    幼児期は言語発達が目覚ましい時期である。就学以降の人を対象とした研究では、広汎性発達障害や言語障害がある人とない人では、音や人の声などの刺激によって引き起こされる脳の反応が、異なったパターンを示すことが言われている。
    我々は幼児期の段階で、それらの聴覚刺激による子どもの脳の反応を捉えることができれば、子どもの音や声の処理能力や言語能力に関わる発達の指標となりえる可能性があるのではないかと考えた。
    平成23年度は、我々は3-5歳の定型発達児を対象とするこれまでの研究をさらにすすめ、被験者数を59人にまで増やし、小児用MEG(脳磁図)を用いて「音声」に対する子どもの聴覚刺激による脳反応を測定し、言語能力との関係を調べた。「ね」という呼びかけや共感を表す日本語音声を聴覚刺激とし、等価電流双極子(equivalent current dipole ; ECD)法で聴覚野の反応のIntensityについて解析を行った。さらに、各子どもの聴覚野の反応とK-ABC (Kaufman assessment battery for children)の下位検査である言語課題『なぞなぞ』の得点と比較した。
    その結果、両半球において100-200msの時間幅で明らかなIntensityのピークが得られた。スピアマン順位相関において、子どもの左半球のIntensityと『なぞなぞ』の得点に有意な相関が認められた。この関係は、月齢や、非言語性の認知機能で、コントロールして(重回帰分析)も、有意な結果であった。これは子どもの言語発達と聴覚野の反応は深く関係している可能性を示唆している。この成果は、査読つき国際論文に発表した(Eur J Neurosci.2012)。

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  • Development of Vocabulary and Grammar in Bilingual Children with Developmental Disorder

    Grant number:22653078  2010 - 2012

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research  Tokyo Gakugei University

    MATSUI Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \3030000 ( Direct Cost: \2700000 、 Indirect Cost: \330000 )

    Many educators and clinicians believe that bilingualism has a negative influence on language development of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there have been few studies conducted to examine if and how bilingualism affects the language development of children with ASD. In this preliminary study, we focused on Japanese-English bilingual children: typically developing children (TD) and children with ASD. To explore vocabulary and grammatical abilities of high functioning Japanese-English bilingual children with ASD (BLASD) in both languages and to compare results with those of typically developing Japanese-English bilingual children (BLTD). BLASD demonstrated higher abilities in Japanese receptive vocabulary than BLTD, while BLTD showed higher abilities in English receptive and expressive vocabulary than BLASD. These results indicate the possibility that vocabulary development is influenced more strongly by the language spoken in the community in which children grow up. No difference was found among groups for English receptive grammar. By contrast, for Japanese receptive grammar, BLASD demonstrated a developmental pattern which was different from the pattern demonstrated by BLTD.

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  • A social psychological study of mutuality between cognition and verbal communication

    Grant number:20330133  2008 - 2010

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Nagoya University

    KARASAWA Minoru, OKAMOTO Shinichiro, MIYAMOTO Sousuke, MATSUI Tomoko, UCHIDA Yukiko, YOSHINARI Yuko

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    Grant amount: \12220000 ( Direct Cost: \9400000 、 Indirect Cost: \2820000 )

    An interdisciplinary approach based on experimental social psychology, developmental psychology, cultural psychology, and linguistics(pragmatics) has revealed mutual determination between verbal communication and cognitive processes which may underlie major conflicts in interpersonal and intergroup settings. The results of the study indicates that verbal acts as well as cognitive processes both rest on interactants mutual understanding of their common grounds. The results have also provided implications for practical strategies for resolving interpersonal, interegroup, and inter-cultural conflicts.

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  • A comprehensive study on the theoretical basis of role languages

    Grant number:19320060  2007 - 2010

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Osaka University

    KINSUI Satoshi, YAMAGUCHI Haruhiko, SADANOBU Toshiyuki, CHON Heson, TESHIGAWARA Mihoko, SHIBUYA Katsumi, MATSUI Tomoko, YOSHIMURA Kazumi, OKAZAKI Tomoko, SUGA Sayaka

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    Grant amount: \18460000 ( Direct Cost: \14200000 、 Indirect Cost: \4260000 )

    Role language (yakuwarigo) is defined as sets of spoken language features (e.g., vocabulary and grammar) and phonetic characteristics (e.g., intonation and accent patterns) associated with particular character types. Throughout the funding period, this study investigated five research questions : (a) the theoretical basis of role language ; (b) the process of children's acquisition of role language ; (c) descriptions of and the historical origins of role language varieties in Japanese ; (d) cross-linguistic analyses of role language between Japanese and foreign languages ; and (e) the educational applications of role language study. The main findings are as follows : the formation of role language is based on social attributes, and by the age of five, children had already acquired knowledge of role language.

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  • 高機能自閉症・アスペルガー症候群にともなう語用障害の定量的評価法の開発

    Grant number:19653121  2007 - 2009

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  挑戦的萌芽研究  金沢大学

    大井 学, 神尾 陽子, 松井 智子, 藤野 博, 田中 優子, 高橋 和子

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    Grant amount: \3200000 ( Direct Cost: \3200000 )

    某市3公立小学校の全学年児童1,374人のうち、775人について、対人行動チェックリスト(SCDC)日本語版12項目のいずれかにあてはまった169人(21.8%)と、そうでない者のうち約1割にあたる78人について、対人応答性尺度(SRS)日本語版の得点をもとに86人について、CCC-2との関連を検討した。
    またPDD児10名を含む4歳1ヶ月から11歳6ヶ月(平均生活年齢6歳4ヶ月)の41名を対象としてCCC-2日本語試作版を実施した。田中・ビネー知能検査V、絵画語彙発達検査(PVT-R)、J.COSS第三版、親への調査などを同時に行った。PDD群とTD群の群間比較ではIQ値、CCC-2指標(正値、負値、GCC、SIDC)で有意差があったが、生活年齢、PVT-R、J.COSS、父母の年齢や教育歴などに有意差はなかった。
    通級指導教室に通級する知的障害のない発達障害の小学生約60名の保護者にCCC-2およびPARSを、対象児にPVTおよびJ.COSS(第三版)を実施した。PARSのスコアから広汎性発達障害の可能性が示唆された児童をASD群に、ASDの基準を満たさずPVTおよびJ.COSSのスコアから語彙および文法理解力に顕著な困難があると評価された児童をSLI群に分類した。ASDにもSLIにも該当しない場合、その他の発達障害群とした。CCC-2の語用に関する領域(場面に不適切な話し方、ステレオタイプ化さわた言語、コミュニケーション場面の利用、非言語コミュニケーション)のスコアを群間で比較し、発達障害児における語用の問題について、特にその障害がASDに固有のものかどうかに焦点を当て検討した。ASD小学生50名にCCCを実施しクラスター分析を行って、4クラスターを得た。

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  • 対人コミュニケーションスキル習得における母子会話の役割ー定型・非定型発達の比較

    Grant number:19650063  2007 - 2009

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  挑戦的萌芽研究 

    田中 優子, 松井 智子, 神尾 陽子, 伊良皆 啓治, 田中 優子

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    Grant amount: \3381154 ( Direct Cost: \3381154 )

    定型発達児母子20組、広汎性発達障害児母子8組の母子間の対話と、同参加児のナラティブの収録を実施した。母子間対話は自然な遊び場面における親子のやりとりをビデオと音声テープに収録し、非言語的な指標(アイコンタクト、指差し、物品のやりとり、愛着行動、ターンテイキングなど)と言語指標(発語量、指示語、共感終助詞など)の発現頻度についての分析を実施中である。定型発達児では1歳後半から2歳前半に発語量が倍増し、言語を用いたコミュニケーションが活発になる。同時期に指示語の使用頻度が増加し、それに相反するように指差しの頻度が減少していく。2歳台では指差し、ちょうだいなどの態度を用いた要求が減少していき、行為を用いた要求から、言語による要求へと変化していく様子がみられた。共感終助詞の使用は2歳前半から徐々に増加し始め、3歳台で一気に倍増していた。
    定型発達児群と広汎性発達障害児との大きな違いは、2歳後半から3歳前半時期にみられ、指差し、アイコンタクト、物を見せる、物を渡す行為で出現し、広汎性発達児の行為頻度は定型発達児に比べて低い。一方、指示語や共感終助詞、注意喚起語(「ほら。」や「見て。」など)の出現頻度には両群で差がないが、全体の発語量や、話しかけへの返答には差があり、広汎性発達障害児の反応量は定型発達児と比べると半分程度であった。更に、広汎性発達障害児に特徴的な現象として、名前を呼ばれた際に無視をする現象がみられた。
    ナラティブについては、文字のない絵本(「かえるくんの冒険」)と言語のないDVD(「ピングーのやきもち」)を見ながら、物語の概要を対象児に語ってもらう形式をとった。対象児については同時に田中.ビネー(知能指数)、PVT-R(語彙発達検査)、CCC-2(コミュニケーション発達検査)、JCOSS(構文理解検査)を行った。データについては分析中である。

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  • Exploration of efficient speech-based instructions for children with autism

    Grant number:19330210  2007 - 2009

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Ibaraki University

    TOJO Yoshikuni, OZAKI Hisaki, SHOJI Hiroaki, ARAI Hideyasu, YAGUCHI Kiyoshi, HASEGAWA Toshikazu, HIROSE Yumiko, DAIROKU Hitoshi, HATSUZUKA Makiko, MATSUI Tomoko, KOREEDA Kiyoji, SHINODA Haruo, MATSUMURA Tamie, MIURA Yui, KIKUCHI Yukiko, AKECHI Hironori, OSANAI Hiroo, SUZUKI Mieko, OKAMOTO Isao, SAISU Hisae, KAMO Satoshi, HIRAYAMA Taichi

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    Grant amount: \17420000 ( Direct Cost: \13400000 、 Indirect Cost: \4020000 )

    Under this project we have obtained following findings : (1) When hearing utterances, ASD children spend less gaze fixation to the referent object which is being looked at by the speaker. (2) They are sensitive to the change in pitch of speech sound, but not to that in phoneme. (3) Their extraction of prosodic meaning is compromised, but could be complimented by off-line, conscious and slow processing, introducing the meta-linguistic knowledge. (4) They show hypersensitive reactions more often to human-related noises than to machine noises. (5) Interventions by teachers and supporters significantly reduce their hyperacusis.

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  • A Cognitive Pragmatics Approach to Metarepresentational Ability and Language Acquisition

    Grant number:17520327  2005 - 2007

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Nara Women's University

    UCHIDA Seiji, YOSHIMURA Akiko, MATSUI Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \3560000 ( Direct Cost: \3200000 、 Indirect Cost: \360000 )

    The theme of the present research is to try to explore based on relevance theory how metarepresentaition is incorporated into language. Uchida chaired a symposium titled 'On metarepresentation' at the 24th national convention of the English Linguistic Society of Japan. He also read a paper and Matusi contributed to the symposium as one of the speakers. Matusi covered a wide range of metarepresentational phenomena and Uchida introduced a new approach to quotation.
    The research results are seen in Uchida (2005, 2007a, 2007b), Yoshimura (2006, 2007a, 2007b), and Matsui (2005a, 2005b, 2006a, 2006b, 2007a, 2007b). Among others, Uchida (2005) applies metarepresentational phenomena to free indirect speech and Uchida (2007a) succeeds in explaining a relationship between deixis and metarepresentation.
    Language acquisition is especially discussed in Uchida (2007b) and Matsui (2005a, 2005b). Uchida (2007b) takes Japanese verbs kureru / morau / ageru as linguistic items where metarepresentational processes are linguistically realized. Matsui (2005a, 2005b) discuss datte in the view of theory of mind. Yoshimura (2006) surveys previous studies on metalinguistic negation and proposes her own original ideas, which leads to the present research.
    Uchida, et. al. (2008) is a translation of Robyn Carston's Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication, to which Uchida and Matsui contributed. The book is a major publication in relevance theory since Sperber and Wilson's Relevance: Communication and Cognition, and the present translation will be of great help to the students and researchers in Japan who are interested in cognitive pragmatics and/or relevance theory.

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  • Development of theory of mind and social cognition through communication

    Grant number:17500172  2005 - 2006

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Kyoto University

    MASATAKA Nobuo, MATSUI Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \3500000 ( Direct Cost: \3500000 )

    (1)Our first study examined children's ability to assess the reliability of information encoded in an utterance. Japanese children were given two contradicting statements about the location of a hidden object. Each statement was provided by a different individual, and was linguistically marked with a different degree of certainty/evidentiality. Children were then questioned about the location of the object and asked to tell how they reached their conclusion. The result demonstrated that 6-to 7-year-olds could reliably explain how they came to know the location of the hidden object, by referring to the utterance or the particular linguistic marking of speaker certainty/evidentiality, of the more reliable speaker. 5-year-olds were only capable of answering the source question by referring to the utterance of more reliable speaker. This indicates a developmental transition from perceptual to metalinguistic awareness in understanding of the sources of belief between 5-to 7-years of age. By contrast, 3-to 4-year-olds had great difficulty in explaining why they trusted one speaker over the other, even when their choice was correct.
    (2)It has been repeatedly shown that when asked to identify a protagonist's false belief on the basis of his false statement, typical English-speaking 3-year-olds dismiss the statement and fail to attribute to him a false belief. In our second study, we tested 3-year-old Japanese children in a similar task, using false statements accompanied by grammaticalized particles of speaker (un-)certainty, as in everyday Japanese utterances. The Japanese children were directly compared with same-aged German children, whose native language does not have grammaticalized epistemic concepts (like English). Japanese children, who are sensitive to different degrees of speaker certainty as indicated by the grammaticalized particles in a way that German children are not, profited from the explicit statement of the protagonist's false belief when it was marked with the attitude of certainty.

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  • Cultural sharedness of social cognition: Experimental and social-psychological studies based on communication analyses

    Grant number:15330134  2003 - 2006

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

    KARASAWA Minoru, MAIYA Kiyoshi, ENDO Yumi, MATUI Tomoko, OGURA Tamiko

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    Grant amount: \10900000 ( Direct Cost: \10900000 )

    Empirical studies employing diverse approaches revealed that social cognition is underpinned not only by intra-individual processes but also by collectively shared processes and representations. We first attempted to build a theoretical framework concerning how stereotype-relevant information and causal explanations are transmitted and constructed into collectively shared knowledge. On the basis of this framework, empirical investigations were conducted concerning dyadic conversations and transmission of information among multiple individuals. Also, a cross-linguistic/cultural comparison between Japanese and Western languages revealed differences and commonalities in representations of attributes of individuals.
    Another set of studies examined the perception of intentionality in individuals' and groups' behavior. The results indicated that an act is perceived as intentional to the extent to which the group is viewed as a coherent social entity. It was also found that the judgment of responsibility is related to the intentionality judgment. Furthermore, we explored the structure of essentialist cognition and its cultural sharedness.
    The perception of intentionality was also approached though developmental studies. Experiments using the false-belief paradigm revealed that the ability to make inferences on others' intention based on verbal cues is achieved at fairly early ages.
    Other studies examined the role of social identity and the perception of transparency in meta-cognition. Finally, a series of cross-cultural studies was conducted concerning the comprehension of others' emotional states.

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  • Young children's understanding of function words and their developing theory of mind

    Grant number:15500171  2003 - 2005

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 

    MATSUI Tomoko, MCCAGG Peter

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    Grant amount: \3600000 ( Direct Cost: \3600000 )

    In the study reported here, Japanese-speaking children aged 3 to 6 were confronted with making choices based on conflicting input from speakers who varied in the degree of certainty and the quality of evidence they possessed for their opinions. Certainty and evidentiality are encoded in Japanese both in high-frequency ; closed-class, sentence-final particles and also in low-frequency, mental state verbs. Our results suggest that children are able to make use of information encoded in the sentence-final particles earlier than information encoded in verbs ; and that understanding of speaker certainty precedes understanding of quality of evidence. Furthermore, although the results generally support the position that children's overall understanding of epistemic vocabulary correlates with their understanding of false-belief, understanding of the sentence-final particles tested did not correlate with false-belief understanding.
    That particles are understood earlier than verbs are can be accounted for in a number of ways. It has been suggested that linguistic items that appear with high frequency in child-directed speech will receive special cognitive salience in child's mind, and as such, may have significant influence to a child's semantic and cognitive development (Choi & Gopnik 1995; Gopnik, Choi, & Baumberger 1996). In the present study, the analysis of Japanese corpus data confirmed the high frequency of sentence-final particles in the mother's speech, and thus, the result tends to support this hypothesis. However, as our data consists of only one child-mother pair, further data is needed to confirm the exact causal relations.
    It is our belief that early understanding of particles provides important information about children's understanding of other's epistemic mental states in general. One of the most intriguing results of our study is that understanding of particles does not correlate with understanding of false-belief. It is now widely assumed that passing false-belief tasks involves explicit representational theory of mind (Perner 1991). However, there is currently little agreement as to whether children can grasp others' mental states prior to that, and if they do, how. It has been reported that children who fail false-belief tasks show procedural, unconscious grasp of other's mental states through eye-gaze, and such understanding has been called ‘implicit' understanding of another's mind (Clements & Perner 1994;Ruffman 2000). We are inclined to believe that Japanese 3-year-olds' understanding of other's knowledge states may similarly be of an implicit kind, though the concept of implicit understanding itself requires further clarification. What the current study has shown, however, is that a consistent, working understanding of knowledge states precedes fully representational understanding of (false) beliefs.

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  • INTERPRETATION PROCESS OF JAPANESE REFERRING EXPRESSIONS : FROM THEORY TO APPLICATION

    Grant number:12680396  2000 - 2002

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  INTERNATIONAL CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

    MATSUI Tomoko, MATSUMOTO Yuji

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    Grant amount: \3700000 ( Direct Cost: \3700000 )

    Interpretation of anaphoric reference is highly context-dependent, and Japanese zero-pronouns are the clearest examples of that. The present study has two main goals. The first is to compare and assess several leading theories of reference assignment, in order to propose a theory of our own which explains the interpretation mechanism of Japanese zero-pronouns. The second is to verify the theory by applying it to create a workable computer program for pronoun resolution.
    The following are is the main achievements of the study:
    (1)A theoretical model of reference resolution, based on relevance theory (Sperber & Wilson 1995) has been proposed. The key mechanisms that are involved in interpretation of Japanese zero-pronouns have been identified, such as the balance between 'contextual effects' and 'processing effort' and interaction between 'implicature' (i.e. expectation of specific contextual effects) and 'explicature' (i.e. linguistic information).
    (2)A new experiment designed to test on-line interpretation of anaphoric reference has started. This experimental study will be completed within 2 years from now.
    (3)A machine learning of model for reference resolution has been proposed and tested. The model incorporate linguistically motivated contextual clues (centering theory). It was applied to resolve Japanese zero-pronouns and outperformed earlier machine learning models.

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