Updated on 2024/02/02

写真a

 
KANEDA Heitaro
 
Organization
Faculty of Science and Engineering Professor
Other responsible organization
Civil, Human and Environmental Science and Engineering Course of Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Master's Program
Civil, Human and Environmental Science and Engineering Course of Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doctoral Program
Contact information
The inquiry by e-mail is 《here
External link

Degree

  • 博士(理学) ( 京都大学 )

  • Master of Science ( Kyoto University )

Education

  • 2004.3
     

    Kyoto University   Graduate School of Science   Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences Ph.D. Student   doctor course   completed

  • 1999.3
     

    Kyoto University   Graduate School of Science   Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences Master Student   master course   completed

  • 1997.3
     

    Kyoto University   Faculty of Science   Department of Science   graduated

Research History

  • 2020.4 - Now

    Chuo University   Faculty of Science and Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering   Professor

  • 2017.4 - 2020.3

    Chiba University   Graduate School of Science Department of Earth Sciences   Associate Professor

  • 2009.4 - 2017.3

    Chiba University   Graduate School of Science Department of Earth Sciences   Associate Professor

  • 2005.4 - 2009.3

    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology   Active Fault Research Center   Researcher

  • 2003.4 - 2005.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science   Research Fellow

  • 1999.4 - 2000.1

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc.

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Professional Memberships

  • 2007.4 - Now

    日本活断層学会

  • 2002.6 - Now

    Seismological Society of America

  • 2001.7 - Now

    東京地学協会

  • 2001.6 - Now

    日本地理学会

  • 2000.7 - Now

    歴史地震研究会

  • 1998.5 - Now

    日本地震学会

  • 1997.4 - Now

    日本第四紀学会

  • 1997.4 - Now

    American Geophysical Union

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Research Interests

  • Active Fault

  • Tectonic Landforms

  • Glacial Landforms

  • Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformation

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Geography  / Geography

  • Social Infrastructure (Civil Engineering, Architecture, Disaster Prevention) / Disaster prevention engineering  / Natural disaster/Disaster prevention science

  • Natural Science / Solid earth sciences  / Geology

  • Natural Science / Human geosciences  / Geomorphology, Tectonic Geomorphology, Paleoseismology

Papers

  • Regional sea-level highstand triggered Holocene ice sheet thinning across coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Yusuke Suganuma, Heitaro Kaneda, Martim Mas e Braga, Takeshige Ishiwa, Takushi Koyama, Jennifer C. Newall, Jun’ichi Okuno, Takashi Obase, Fuyuki Saito, Irina Rogozhina, Jane Lund Andersen, Moto Kawamata, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Nathaniel A. Lifton, Ola Fredin, Jonathan M. Harbor, Arjen P. Stroeven, Ayako Abe-Ouchi

    Communications Earth & Environment   3 ( 1 )   2022.11

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    Abstract

    The East Antarctic Ice Sheet stores a vast amount of freshwater, which makes it the single largest potential contributor to future sea-level rise. However, the lack of well-constrained geological records of past ice sheet changes impedes model validation, hampers mass balance estimates, and inhibits examination of ice loss mechanisms. Here we identify rapid ice-sheet thinning in coastal Dronning Maud Land from Early to Middle Holocene (9000–5000 years ago) using a deglacial chronology based on in situ cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dates from central Dronning Maud Land, in concert with numerical simulations of regional and continental ice-sheet evolution. Regional sea-level changes reproduced from our refined ice-load history show a highstand at 9000–8000 years ago. We propose that sea-level rise and a concomitant influx of warmer Circumpolar Deep Water triggered ice shelf breakup via the marine ice sheet instability mechanism, which led to rapid thinning of upstream coastal ice sheet sectors.

    DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00599-z

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    Other Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s43247-022-00599-z

  • Development History of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation(DSGSD)in the Kanmuriyama Area, Central Japan

    Satoru KOJIMA, Ryota NIWA, Naoya IWAMOTO, Heitaro KANEDA, Katsumi HATTORI, Keitaro KOMURA, Tomohiro YAMAZAKI, Kazuki YASUNAGA

    Journal of the Japan Society of Engineering Geology   63 ( 1 )   2 - 12   2022.4

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Japan Society of Engineering Geology  

    The double ridges in the Kanmuriyama area, central Japan, were formed by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation(DSGSD). The sediments deposited between the ridges consist of three units:(a)alternating carbonaceous mud and layers rich in plant remains,(b)light-gray mud, and(c)orange conglomeratic mud, in descending order. Unit(c)is interpreted to be basal conglomerate above the basement unconformity. The carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS-14C)ages of wood fragments, and the Kikai-Akahoya(K-Ah)tephra that erupted at about 7,300 cal BP are embedded in unit(a), indicate that the accumulation rate of the sediments is about 0.25 mm/year, and the double ridges are estimated to have formed over about 11 ka. The results of the electrical resistivity tomography(ERT)survey suggest that the sedimentary basin is wedge-shaped, thinning to the east, and was formed by rotational sliding along the estimated gravitational fault dipping steeply to the east and limiting the western side of the basin. The horizon of the K-Ah tephra, with a ground surface of 7,300 years ago, is flat and abuts on the basement rocks. Therefore, it is inferred that the DSGSDs stopped major activity before 7.3 ka and the slope is now stable. The trigger of the DSGSD activity is most probably the climate change from cold/dry to temperate/wet conditions at the end of the last glacial period. Similar slope instabilities at the time of deglaciation, accompanied by oversteepening, debuttressing and unloading, were reported from mountain ranges worldwide. The lithological change from unit(b)to(a)might also have resulted from the vegetation change during this climatic shift.

    DOI: 10.5110/jjseg.63.2

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  • Synchronized gravitational slope deformation and active faulting: A case study on and around the Neodani fault, central Japan Reviewed

    Keitaro Komura, Heitaro Kaneda, Tomoki Tanaka, Satoru Kojima, Tsutomu Inoue, Tomohiro Nishio

    Geomorphology   365   107214 - 107214   2020.9

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107214

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  • 東南極における海域-陸域シームレス堆積物掘削研究の展望 Reviewed

    菅沼悠介, 石輪健樹, 川又基人, 奥野淳一, 香月興太, 板木拓也, 関 宰, 金田平太郎, 松井浩紀, 羽田裕貴, 藤井昌和, 平野大輔

    地学雑誌   129 ( 5 )   591 - 610   2020

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

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  • Stereopaired Morphometric Protection Index Red Relief Image Maps (Stereo MPI-RRIMs): Effective Visualization of High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models for Interpreting and Mapping Small Tectonic Geomorphic Features Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Tatsuro Chiba

    BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA   109 ( 1 )   99 - 109   2019.2

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SEISMOLOGICAL SOC AMER  

    We propose stereopaired morphometric protection index red relief image maps (Stereo MPI-RRIMs) for effective visualization of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to interpret and map small tectonic geomorphic features along active faults. Stereo MPI-RRIMs resolve problems of an original red relief image map (RRIM) in active fault studies and allow simultaneous expression of all of the three basic topographic parameters of elevation, slope, and convexity and concavity with minimal degradation of original data quality. Although stereographic viewing may require some practice and/or supporting devices, this is a big advantage over the most often used DEM visualization of shaded relief maps and slope maps, both of which only represent one aspect of 3D morphology. We also applied the visualization to DEMs of two active tectonic areas and found that Stereo MPI-RRIMs vividly visualize various tectonic geomorphic features and even errors from DEM production processing, thereby maximizing the potential of the digital topographic data for active fault studies. We argue that those who use DEMs need to pay more attention to DEM visualization, and our proposed method, along with our simple programs, would aid in more complete interpretation and mapping of small tectonic geomorphic features.

    DOI: 10.1785/0120180166

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  • Development of a portable percussion piston corer Reviewed

    Suganuma Yusuke, Katsuki Kota, Kaneda Heitaro, Kawamata Moto, Tanabe Yukiko, Shibata Daisuke

    The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan   125 ( 4 )   323 - 326   2019

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:The Geological Society of Japan  

    <p>We developed a new portable percussion piston corer for coring lacustrine and shallow-marine sediments from a frozen ice surface. The weight of the corer is less than 100 kg, and it can be separated into individual components. Therefore, the corer can be carried to remote sites using pack frames and allows coring to be undertaken in areas that cannot be reached with mechanical drilling equipment. The engine-driven percussion coring can obtain relatively coarse and hard sediments. The main body of the corer is composed of a transparent polycarbonate pipe with an external diameter of 76 mm, which allows us to check length and facies of the cored sediments immediately after coring. The polycarbonate pipe is suitable for preserving sediments and can be easily replaced in subsequent coring. The new corer is advantageous for lacustrine- and marine-sediment coring in extreme (cold) environments, such as Antarctica and high mountains, and may also be applied to a wide range of geoscientific fields.</p>

    DOI: 10.5575/geosoc.2018.0065

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  • Perspectives on seam-less marine-lake sediment coring study in East Antarctica

    Suganuma Yusuke, Ishiwa Takeshige, Kawamata Moto, Okuno Jyun'ichi, Kota Katsuki, Itaki Takuya, Tanabe Yukiko, Seki Osamu, Kaneda Heitaro, Matsui Hiroki, Haneda Yuki, Suto Itsuki, Fujii Masakazu, Hirano Daisuke

    Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of Japan   2019   157   2019

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:The Geological Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.14863/geosocabst.2019.0_157

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  • Discovery, Controls, and Hazards of Widespread Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation in the Etsumi Mountains, Central Japan Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Taiyo Kono

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-EARTH SURFACE   122 ( 12 )   2370 - 2391   2017.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) is a largely unnoticed but important long-term mass wasting process that may result in catastrophic failure of mountain slopes. Manifested by small topographic irregularities such as ridge-parallel scarps and linear depressions, it has been predominantly reported in alpine landscapes above timber lines. On the basis of area-wide high-resolution topographic data acquired by light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, we here show that similar to 96% of existing gravitational scarps have been hidden under forest canopies in the Etsumi Mountains, central Japan. The scarps are surprisingly widespread over the mountains with a mean line density of as large as 0.87km/km(2). Our analyses of the scarp distribution suggest that uphill-facing scarps are primary geomorphic signals of DSGSD with a destabilized rock mass larger than similar to 10(5)m(2), whereas downhill-facing scarps principally occur in response to more localized slope deformation. In terms of controls, topography is by far the most influential factor in triggering and promoting DSGSD. Despite the M 7.5 earthquake in 1891, impact of large local earthquakes proves to be not very strong. Comparison with preexisting landslide maps further suggests that DSGSD and large-scale landslides are not different slope processes but represent different stages of the same process. Our results highlight limitations of aerial-photograph interpretation in forest-covered mountains and the need for lidar-assisted mapping for deeper understanding of this long-term process and interactions between surface and tectonic processes.

    DOI: 10.1002/2017JF004382

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  • Development of Monitoring System to Understand Preparation Processes of Rainfall-Induced Landslides Estimation of Slip Surface and In Situ Observation Using Electromagnetic Methods Reviewed

    Tomohiro Yamazaki, Katsumi Hattori, Heitaro Kaneda, Hideo Sakai, Yoshinori Izumi, Tomomi Terajima

    ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN JAPAN   100 ( 10 )   3 - 11   2017.10

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY  

    In order to mitigate landslide risks, monitoring of ground water is essential. Previous indoor experiments suggest that the self-potential approach has an advantage to establish the early warning system in performance to detect related signals and in cost. To evaluate results obtained from the previous indoor experiments, in situ measurements are required. To achieve this, we selected a test slope at Nishiikawa, Tokushima, Japan and we performed preliminary electrical resistivity exploration (ERT) and core-sampling. The results of ERT show that there are low resistive areas in shallow depth (&lt;3 m). The core-sampling results also indicate that there exists the structure which corresponds to slip surface. In addition, anisotropy in magnetic susceptibility was examined and the samples around the estimated slip surface region provide the oblate ellipsoid characteristics. These results of ERT and core analyses are consistent and make convince the identification of the slip surface. Based on these preliminary results, we set up the in situ self-potential observation at the slope and started measurements.

    DOI: 10.1002/ecj.11967

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  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based Survey in Antarctica for High-definition Topographic Measurements Reviewed

    SUGANUMA Yusuke, KAWAMATA Moto, SHIRAMIZU Kaoru, KOYAMA Takushi, DOI Koichiro, KANEDA Heitaro, AOYAMA Yuichi, HAYAKAWA Hideaki, OBANAWA Hiroyuki

    Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)   126 ( 1 )   1 - 24   2017

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Tokyo Geographical Society  

    <p> Unmanned aerial vehicle-based "Structure from Motion" (UAV-SfM) photogrammetry is becoming increasingly important for obtaining high-definition topographic data in a variety of earth science research. Antarctica is one of the best fields in which UAV-SfM surveys are applied, because detailed geomorphological data are essential for reconstructing past Antarctic ice sheet changes and understanding landform evolution processes in a hyper-arid and hypothermal environment. However, application of UAVs in Antarctica has been limited because of difficulties arising from low temperatures and the restricted availability of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-assisted navigation system at high latitudes. In this article, we provide methodological solutions for these difficulties, and report several preliminary results of UAV surveys in central Dronning Maud Land and the Soya Coast in East Antarctica. A digital elevation model (DEM) obtained in central Dronning Maud Land clearly shows 3D structures of polygons developed on glacial tills. At the Soya Coast, a DEM analysis reveals detailed geomorphological characteristics, such as moraine ridges originating from a former ice stream and differential erosion of the basement due to weathering. Based on these results, we suggest that the UAV survey has certain merits for conducting an efficient field survey in the extremely large areas of Antarctica within a limited time, and has great potential for reconstructing past Antarctic ice sheet changes and obtaining a further understanding of landform evolution processes.</p>

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.126.1

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  • Slip-partitioned surface ruptures for the Mw 7.0 16 April 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake Reviewed

    Shinji Toda, Heitaro Kaneda, Shinsuke Okada, Daisuke Ishimura, Zoe K. Mildon

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   68   2016.11

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SPRINGER HEIDELBERG  

    An ENE-trending similar to 30-km-long surface rupture emerged during the Mw = 7.0 16 April 2016 Kumamoto earthquake along the previously mapped Futagawa and northern Hinagu faults. This included a previously unknown 5-km-long fault within the Aso Caldera, central Kyushu. The rupture zone is mostly composed of right-lateral slip sections, with a maximum of 2-m coseismic slip. One of the noteworthy features we observed in the field are similar to 10-km-long segmented normal fault scarps, dipping to the northwest, along the previously mapped Idenokuchi fault, 1.2-2.0 km south of and subparallel to the Futagawa fault. The maximum amount of coseismic throw on the Idenokuchi fault is similar to 2 m, which is nearly equivalent to the maximum slip on the strike-slip rupture. The locations and slip motions of the 2016 rupture are also manifested as interferogram fringe offsets in InSAR images. Together with geodetic and seismic inversions of subsurface fault slip, we present a schematic structural model where oblique motion occurred on a northwest-dipping subsurface fault and the slip is partitioned at the surface into strike-slip and normal fault scarps. Our simple dislocation model demonstrates that this bifurcation into pure strike-slip and normal faults likely occurs for optimally oriented failure near the surface. The Kumamoto case, with detailed geological observations and geophysical models, would be the second significant slip-partitioned earthquake around the globe. It provides an important insight into scale-and depth-dependent stress heterogeneity and an implication to a proper estimate of seismic hazard in complex and broad multiple fault strands.

    DOI: 10.1186/s40623-016-0560-8

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  • Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc Reviewed

    Akinori Hashima, Toshinori Sato, Hiroshi Sato, Kazumi Asao, Hiroshi Furuya, Shuji Yamamoto, Koji Kameo, Takahiro Miyauchi, Tanio Ito, Noriko Tsumura, Heitaro Kaneda

    TECTONOPHYSICS   679   1 - 14   2016.6

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (&lt;1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.04.005

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  • 2014年長野県北部の地震(神城断層地震)における地表地震断層の出現と新たな問題

    廣内大助, 年神城断層地震変動地形研究グループ, 杉戸信彦, 松多信尚, 石黒聡士, 熊原康博, 後藤秀昭, 北野志歩, 中田 高, 金田平太郎, 岡部将弥, 林 星和, 宮内崇裕, 高木颯汰, 鈴木康弘, 楮原京子, 渡辺満久, 澤 祥, 石山達也, 安江健一, 廣内大助, 池田一貴, 桐生和樹, 清水龍来, 山崎福太郎

    日本地震工学会誌   ( 25 )   7 - 12   2015

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  • Development History of Landslide-Related Sagging Geomorphology in Orogenic Belts: Examples in Central Japan Reviewed

    Satoru Kojima, Heitaro Kaneda, Hidehisa Nagata, Ryota Niwa, Naoya Iwamoto, Koichiro Kayamoto, Tomoyuki Ohtani

    ENGINEERING GEOLOGY FOR SOCIETY AND TERRITORY, VOL 2: LANDSLIDE PROCESSES   553 - 558   2015

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG  

    Small-scale geomorphic features of sagging have been known to occur in mountainous areas in Japan by the analyses of high resolution map images made from the LiDAR data. Development histories of the sagging landforms were analyzed by the GIS analyses, field mapping, machine and hand auger boring, AMS C-14 dating, and tephra geochronology in the Mt. Kanmuriyama, Tsuenomine and Nogo-Hakusan areas. Sediments accumulated in the ridge-top depression in the Mt. Kanmuriyama area yield wood fragments with the ages of 1,234-1060, 6,191-5,996 and 7,931-7,731 cal BP, and also include the K-Ah tephra of ca 7.3 ka. These ages indicate that the depression started to form at the beginning of warm and humid climate after the last glacial period. On the other hand, the double ridges in the Mt. Tsuenomine area formed much earlier before the deposition of the Kikai-Tozurahara tephra about 95 ka. The GIS analyses of sagging in the Mt. Nogo-Hakusan area indicate that most of them are distributed on the flat or gentle surface just above the knick line (erosion front); it means that the knick lines retreat through the repetitive formation and destruction of the sagging landforms.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09057-3_91

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  • Surface rupture associated with the 2014 Naganoken-hokubu earthquake (Kamishiro fault earthquake), central Japan Reviewed

    Hirouchi Daisuke, Suzuki Yasuhiro, Watanabe Mitsuhisa, Sawa Hiroshi, Miyauchi Takahiro, Forteenth Year Kamishiro Fault Earthquake Research Group for the Twenty-, Matsuta Nobuhisa, Sugito Nobuhiko, Kumahara Yasuhiro, Ishiguro Satoshi, Kaneda Heitaro, Goto Hideaki, Kagohara Kyoko, Nakata Takashi

    Active Fault Research   2015 ( 43 )   149 - 162   2015

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Japanese Society for Active Fault Studies  

    <p>The 2014 M 6.7 Naganoken-hokubu earthquake was caused by movement of the Kamishiro fault located in the northernmost part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) active fault system, central Japan. We conducted a series of field research immediately after the earthquake to describe coseismic surface ruptures. Our description methods were: 1) field reconnaissance using pre- and post-earthquake airphotos; 2) quick measurement using staff; 3) topographic profiling using Auto Level and Total Station; and, 4) UAV and highpole SfM measurement. We identified 9-km-long coseismic surface rupture, most of which was located along the pre-existing surface trace of the Kamishiro fault. The maximum value of coseismic vertical offset was ca. 1 m or more, which was recorded at Oide in the northern part of the rupture. Based on comparison of the 2014 coseismic slip distribution with the long-term slip rate distribution, both 2014 slip amount and cumulative offset amounts of L2 and L3 terrace surfaces are larger in the northern end of the ruptures. This implies that the subsurface coseismic slip during pre-2014 earthquakes continued toward the north, similar to that during the 2014 earthquake. In addition, both coseismic slip and long-term slip rate becomes smaller toward the south, indicating that the Kamishiro area is one of the segment boundaries in the northern part of the ISTL active fault system. Further investigations of the 2014 earthquake and the Kamishiro fault are needed to understand formation of tectonic landforms, landscape development, or earthquake prediction model of active faults.</p>

    DOI: 10.11462/afr.2015.43_149

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  • Detection of subtle tectonic-geomorphic features in densely forested mountains by very high-resolution airborne LiDAR survey Reviewed

    Zhou Lin, Heitaro Kaneda, Sakae Mukoyama, Norichika Asada, Tatsuro Chiba

    GEOMORPHOLOGY   182   104 - 115   2013.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Despite successes elsewhere in the world, 2 m resolution DEMs from a standard airborne LiDAR survey failed to detect small tectonic-geomorphic features in densely-forested high-relief mountains of central Japan. Our new 0.5-m DEMs from an unprecedentedly high-resolution LiDAR survey along the Neodani Fault now reveal a number of previously unknown fault scarps as well as other hidden geomorphic features. The survey achieves a ground-return density of 6.2 m(-2) out of a total shot density of as much as similar to 12.7 m(-2). The main factor to gain sufficient ground returns in unfavorable conditions is a large side lap of similar to 70% between flight swaths, which means that any specific area in the target zone is scanned three or more times from different angles. Evaluation of DEMs with resolution from 0.25 to 10 m assures that a 0.5m resolution LiDAR DEM is necessary for the detection of subtle tectonic breaks. Another key factor for complete detection of small tectonic-geomorphic features is the application of a recently developed DEM visualization "Red Relief Image Map (RRIM)", which allows mapping of all the small features with various sizes, orientations and morphology, overcoming major drawbacks of classic DEM visualizations. A very high-resolution LiDAR survey aided with RRIM visualization as used in this study provides a more reliable approach for the detailed mapping of slight active fault traces hidden under dense vegetation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.001

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  • 岐阜福井県境,冠山北西の二重山稜間の凹地を埋積した堆積物のAMS-14C年代とテフラ年代

    Niwa, R, Kojima, S, Iwamoto, N, Kaneda, H, Ohtani, T

    Environ. Earth Sci.   24 ( 24 )   159 - 167   2013

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  • 岐阜福井県境,冠山峠周辺に発達する山体重力変形地形の発達過程

    Niwa, R, Kojima, S, Kaneda, H, Ohtani, T

    25   179 - 180   2013

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (conference, symposium, etc.)  

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  • Surface Rupture Associated with the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, Earthquake and its Implications to the Rupture Process and Evaluation of Active Faults Reviewed

    TODA Shinji, MARUYAMA Tadashi, YOSHIMI Masayuki, KANEDA Keitaro, AWATA Yasuo, YOSHIOKA Toshikazu, ANDO Ryosuke

    Zisin (Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan. 2nd ser.)   62 ( 4 )   153 - 178   2010.3

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN  

    The Mjma 7.2 (Mw 6.9) Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake struck mountainous regions east of volcanic front in northern Honshu. To understand the relation between coseismic surface deformation and the seismogenic faulting and to have lessons in the long-term earthquake forecasting, we have performed urgent field investigations immediately after the main shock, while fragile structure and surface geomorphic features were fresh. More than 13 fault-rupture observations suggest that the estimated total length of the tectonic ground breakages reaches &sim;20 km even though their locations are spotty rather than continuous along the entire trend. Contractional features such as thrust fault exposures, flexure, tilting, and buckling deformations predominate on the rupture zone, which is consistent with the reverse faulting under the WNW-ESE compressional stress field in northern Honshu. Such shortening features as well as vertical displacements were visible on cultural features such as concrete, asphalt paved roads, sidewalks, guardrails, drainage ditches, and rice paddies. Amounts of vertical offset and horizontal shortening measured using such cultural piercing points are mostly smaller than 50 cm (&sim;1 m of net slip). Fractures with such small slip, in turn, would not have been noticeable and may reflect the spotty distribution of the ruptures. Meanwhile, near the southern end of the rupture zone, fault structure and slip sense become complex and measured offsets are exceptionally large. We found a E-W-striking &sim;1-km-long continuous rupture involved with 4-to-8-m dextral and 2-to-4-m vertical offsets of a paved road, trails, and rills near a massive giant landslide at the northern rim of the Aratozawa dam reservoir. Terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements together with our field observations reveal typical features of strike-slip faulting such as mole tracks, fissures, pressure ridges, bulges, and shutter ridges as well as the offset rills and ridges. Detail mapping of the ruptures suggests that this strike-slip dominant fault is a lateral ramp or tear fault that connects two distinct NNE-trending thrust faults, although we cannot rule out the possibility of a large mass movement due to gravitational force to induce such large displacements without suffcient geodetic and geologic data. The mapped zone of the ruptures approximately locates along the central part of the surface projection of a &sim;40-km-long west-dipping source fault and associated aftershock zone. It also well corresponds to an asperity estimated from seismic and geodetic inversions, particularly southern end of the ground breakage zone. However, from the viewpoint of the long-term predictability, the surface fracturing occurred where none of active faults was previously mapped. Although several active geomorphic strands are likely to have reoccupied with the 2008 event, they are more spotty than the 2008 ruptures. Thus it would not have allowed us to properly evaluate size of the shock and entire extension of the rupture.

    DOI: 10.4294/zisin.62.153

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  • Triggered and Primary Surface Ruptures along the Camp Rock Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Thomas K. Rockwell

    BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA   99 ( 5 )   2704 - 2720   2009.10

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    During the 1992 M-w 7.3 Landers earthquake in the eastern California shear zone, only the shallowest part of the central 8 km of the Camp Rock fault apparently ruptured, triggered by coseismic static stress changes. Our detailed tectonic-geomorphic analysis of a 2 km long stretch of the central Camp Rock fault reveals that the 1992 triggered surface rupture differs markedly from earlier primary surface ruptures in terms of its vertical-slip function. We interpret this to be related to a difference in stress directions that induced fault slips: the 1992 static stress changes decreased normal stress on the central Camp Rock fault, thereby inducing a normal component of slip, whereas a minor reverse-slip component is associated with more typical primary seismogenic surface ruptures due to regional north-south compression. Our findings suggest that a detailed geomorphic analysis of a key locality may allow for isolation of triggered surface ruptures from repeated primary surface ruptures identified in paleoseismic studies.

    DOI: 10.1785/0120080310

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  • Long-term seismic behavior of a fault involved in a multiple-fault rupture: Insights from tectonic geomorphology along the Neodani fault, central Japan Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Atsumasa Okada

    BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA   98 ( 5 )   2170 - 2190   2008.10

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    Multiple faults with different paleoseismic histories sometimes rupture simultaneously, resulting in a larger earthquake than expected. To test behavioral models for a fault involved in a multiple-fault rupture, we performed detailed tectonic-geomorphological mapping along the Neodani fault, central Japan, one of several faults that ruptured simultaneously during the devastating 1891 M-w 7.5 Nobi earthquake. Our mapping showed that the along-strike distributions of the long-term rates of left-lateral and vertical slips generally mimic in shape those of the 1891 slip, implying that the slip-patch behavior, in which smaller more frequent earthquake ruptures fill in low-slip portions of the 1891 rupture, does not apply to the Neodani fault. If the earthquake recurrence interval estimated from a previous paleoseismic trench is correct, however, the Neodani fault should not be characterized by repetition of same slip-function earthquake ruptures or the characteristic slip-function behavior. The observations can instead be explained by the semicharacteristic slip-function behavior, in which a similarly shaped slip distribution is repeated independently of the rupture of adjacent faults, but the amount of slip varies. Nonetheless, characteristic slip-function behavior may still be a valid interpretation if some of the paleoseismic events identified in the trench are minor sympathetic-slip events. Although we found that the shape of the slip distribution has been quite stable through successive earthquakes, including a multiple-fault rupture earthquake, further paleoseismic efforts are warranted to examine the stability in the amount of slip.

    DOI: 10.1785/0120070204

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  • Long recurrence interval of faulting beyond the 2005 Kashmir earthquake around the northwestern margin of the Indo-Asian collision zone Reviewed

    Hisao Kondo, Takashi Nakata, Sardar S. Akhtar, Steven G. Wesnousky, Nobuhiko Sugito, Heitaro Kaneda, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Abdul M. Khan, Waliullah Khattak, Allah B. Kausar

    GEOLOGY   36 ( 9 )   731 - 734   2008.9

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    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan occurred on a previously mapped active fault around the northwest margin of the Indo-Asian collision zone. To address the quantitative contribution of the earthquake to plate convergence, we performed paleoseismological trench excavations at Nisar Camp site near Muzaffarabad across the middle section of the 2005 surface rupture. The fault strands exposed in the trench cut late Holocene fluvial deposits and record evidence of both the 2005 and a penultimate event, supported by the presence of colluvial deposits and a downdip increase in displacement along the fault strands. The 2005 event produced a net slip of 5.4 m, and the penultimate earthquake exhibits a similar amount of slip. Radiocarbon ages and historical accounts loosely constrain the timing of the penultimate event between 500 and 2200 yr B.P.; however, the exposed section encompasses similar to 4 k.y. of stratigraphy, suggesting an average interevent interval of similar to 2 k.y. for the 2005 type events. We thus conclude that the 2005 event did not occur on the plate boundary megathrusts, but on intraplate active faults within the Sub-Himalaya. Consequently, the accumulated elastic strain around the complex northwestern margin of the Indo-Asian collision zone has not been significantly released by the 2005 earthquake.

    DOI: 10.1130/G25028A.1

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  • An 18,000-year record of recurrent folding inferred from sediment slices and cores across a blind segment of the Biwako-seigan fault zone, central Japan Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Hirohisa Kinoshita, Taku Komatsubara

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH   113 ( B5 )   2008.5

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    Closely spaced sediment slices and cores reveal evidence for recurrent folding in the past 18 ka across the tip of a blind thrust fault near Kyoto, central Japan. The slices, 0.4 m wide and up to 5.5 m long, collected with "geoslicer'' technique, exposed the central 100 m of a stratigraphic cross section that extends across a fold scarp in the southern Biwako-seigan fault zone. A chronology inferred with 109 radiocarbon ages suggests that the most recent blind thrust earthquake occurred in the range A. D. 1060-1260, most likely around A. D. 1170. Historical accounts strongly support that this earthquake correlates with the 1185 M 7.4 Genryaku Kyoto earthquake. The earthquake produced a broad surficial fold more than 200 m wide with a vertical displacement of 3 m or more. Earlier paleoearthquakes lack well-defined event horizons, but we find that the deformation of the 18-ka unit is likely 4 times that from the most recent earthquake. Our results show the application of geoslicer technique to blind thrust paleoseismology, for which traditional trenching is rarely applicable or useful because of broad surficial deformation and commonly shallow groundwater at potential paleoseismic sites.

    DOI: 10.1029/2007JB005300

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  • Surface rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, earthquake and its active tectonic implications Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Takashi Nakata, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Hisao Kondo, Nobuhiko Sugito, Yasuo Awata, Sardar S. Akhtar, Abdul Majid, Waliullah Khattak, Adnan A. Awan, Robert S. Yeats, Ahmad Hussain, Muhammad Ashraf, Steven G. Wesnousky, Allah B. Kausar

    BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA   98 ( 2 )   521 - 557   2008.4

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    To provide a detailed record of a relatively rare thrust surface rupture and examine its active tectonic implications, we have conducted field mapping of the surface rupture associated with the 2005 M-w 7.6 Kashmir earthquake. Despite the difficulty arising from massive earthquake-induced landslides along the surface rupture, we found that typical pressure ridges and warps extend northwestward for a distance of similar to 70 km, with a northeast-side-up vertical separation of up to similar to 7 m. Neither the main frontal thrust nor the main boundary thrust is responsible for the earthquake, but three active faults or fault segments within the Sub-Himalaya, collectively called the Balakot-Bagh fault, compose the causative fault. Although the fault exhibits substantial geomorphic expression of repeated similar surface ruptures, only a part of it had been mapped as active before the earthquake. The location of the hypocenter suggests that the rupture was initiated at a deep portion of the northern-central segment boundary and propagated bilaterally to eventually break all three segments. Our obtained surface rupture traces and the along-strike-slip distribution are both in good agreement with results of prompt analyses of satellite images, indicating that space geodesy can greatly aid in time-consuming field mapping of surface ruptures. Assuming that the extensive fill terrace in the meizoseismal area was abandoned during 10 30 ka, we tentatively estimate the earthquake recurrence interval and shortening rate on the Balakot-Bagh fault to be 1000-3300 yr and 1:4-4:1 mm/yr, respectively. These estimates indicate that the Balakot-Bagh fault is not a main player of Himalayan contraction accommodation.. Selected field photographs and ArcGIS files of the mapped surface rupture traces and measured vertical separations are available in the electronic edition of BSSA.

    DOI: 10.1785/0120070073

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  • Holocene ages and inland source of wood blocks that emerged onto the seafloor during the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, central Japan, earthquake Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda, Makoto Nakata, Yoshihiro Hosoo, Yuichi Sugiyama, Yukinobu Okamura

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   60 ( 11 )   1149 - 1152   2008

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    At least 300 tons of subrounded to well-rounded wood blocks emerged onto the seafloor at a water depth of 70-100 m during the 2007 M(w) 6.6 Chuetsu-oki, central Japan, earthquake. Radiocarbon dating and taxonomic identification of eight of those wood blocks suggest that they were transported from inland during the middle to late Holocene, buried by Subsequent sedimentation, and brought up onto the seafloor in 2007, most likely by submarine liquefaction induced by strong shaking. In particular, all eight blocks gave ages older than 2500 cal yr BP, implying the possibility that the 2007 earthquake was the first earthquake during the last two millennia to have caused shaking strong enough to induce submarine liquefaction in the 2007 meizoseismal area. However, we cannot rule out the possibility of multiple large earthquakes after approximately 2 ka, if the buried wood sources cannot be emptied by a single earthquake. Further studies are required to examine paleoseismic implications of the emergence of these wood blocks in 2007.

    DOI: 10.1186/BF03353152

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  • Coastal deformation associated with the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake, central Japan, estimated from uplifted and subsided intertidal organisms Reviewed

    Yasuo Awata, Shinji Toda, Heitaro Kaneda, Takashi Azuma, Haruo Horikawa, Masanobu Shishikura, Tomoo Echigo

    EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   60 ( 10 )   1059 - 1062   2008

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    The March 25. 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (M(j) = 6.9, M(w) = 6.7) generated vertical crustal movement along the northwestern coast of the Noto Peninsula, Central Japan. Soon after the event, we estimated the pattern and amount of coseismic coastal movement based on uplifted and subsided intertidal sessile organisms. Our observations reveal a broad 20-km-wide asymmetric zone of surficial deformation above and across the south-dipping source fault, with it steep north-facing frontal limb and a gentle south-facing back limb. The maximum coseismic Uplift was approximately 40 cm at the crest of the zone of deformation. The result of forward modeling suggests that the top of the south-dipping source fault is buried at a depth of approximately 2 km, and that 1.2 m of slip on the fault provides the best fit to our surface observations. Our results demonstrate that traditional field investigations should be combined with modern instrumental observations such as GPS and InSAR to obtain the most effective and reliable spatio-temporal estimates of crustal movement associated with large earthquakes.

    DOI: 10.1186/BF03352869

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  • Marine reservoir correction for the Pacific coast of central Japan using C-14 ages of marine mollusks uplifted during historical earthquakes Reviewed

    Masanobu Shishikura, Tomoo Echigo, Heitaro Kaneda

    QUATERNARY RESEARCH   67 ( 2 )   286 - 291   2007.3

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    In this study we utilize marine shell samples from two levels of historically uplifted sessile mollusk assemblages and raised wave-cut benches to evaluate the marine reservoir correction (Delta R) for the Pacific coast of central Japan. Elevation measurements of the uplifted marine shells indicate that the lower assemblage emerged during the 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake (M7.9), whereas uplift of the upper assemblage is most likely but less confidently ascribed to the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake (M8.2). Radiocarbon dating of carefully selected samples from the upper and lower assemblages yielded very similar Delta R values of 82 +/- 33 and 77 +/- 32 yr, respectively. We regard the former Delta R value as a representative and more reliable value given the uncertainty in correlation of the upper assemblage with the 1703 earthquake. This result is consistent with previously reported Delta R values for the Pacific coast of south-central Japan and areas around the Sea of Japan that are influenced by warm ocean currents. Radiocarbon dating of coseismically uplifted shells can aid in estimating marine reservoir ages in the tectonically active Japan Islands. (c) 2006 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2006.09.003

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  • Holocene faulting on the Yugamine fault of the Atera fault zone, central Japan Reviewed

    Hirouchi Daisuke, Yasue Ken-ichi, Uchida Chikara, Hiramatsu Takahiro, Taniguchi Kaoru, Sugito Nobuhiko, Kaneda Heitaro

    Active Fault Research   2007 ( 27 )   201 - 209   2007

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    The Yugamine fault,10 km in length, is in the north-central part of the Atera fault zone. We studied Holocene activity of the Yugamine fault through a trenching survey. We excavated a trench across the scarplet on the L 1 terrace at Obayashi district. Some humic layers and fluvial gravels are exposed on the trench walls. The Yugamine fault has cut through these layers to form a linear depression on its NE side. From the structural evidence along the fault plane and angular unconformity, we recognize at least four faulting events in this trench.

    DOI: 10.11462/afr1985.2007.27_201

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  • Surface-faulting History of the Daguchi Fault, North of Lake Biwa, Southwest Japan, inferred from Pit Excavations on a Mountain Slope Reviewed

    KANEDA Heitaro, INOUE Tsutomu, KANEHARA Masaaki, TAKEMURA Keiji

    Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)   114 ( 5 )   724 - 738   2005.12

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    Excavating a pit across a small up-hill facing fault scarp on a mountain slope could be a paleoseismological tool for intramontane active faults, which usually lack suitable sites for traditional trenching. We tested this method on the Daguchi fault, north of Lake Biwa, southwest Japan, a typical short strike-slip fault in a mountainous region. Our test excavation at the Kurokoyama site on the southern subsegment of the fault, together with a re-interpretation of our previous excavation at the Daguchi site on the northern subsegment, allow us to obtain some constraints on the surface-faulting history of the fault. The timing of the most recent event is estimated to be 450-1050 cal. y.B.P. (900-1500 A.D.), whereas that of the penultimate event is poorly constrained : 1500-7300 cal. y.B.P. or prior to 5000-7300 cal. y.B.P., depending on different interpretations of the infilled fissure exposed on the pit wall. For either interpretation, our result is consistent with estimates from a previous paleoseismic study by Sugiyama and Yoshioka (1999), but the presence of other stratigraphically unidentifiable events cannot be ruled out, given the lack of piecing layers across the main fault in our pits, as well as their trench. The principal reason for the poor age control is an unexpected lack of peaty sediments at the Kurokoyama site, which is probably related to a high sedimentation rate and an unusual sedimentation process due to rapid soil creep on the mountain slope. Although application of this method might be limited on a mountain slope with rapid soil creep, which is commonly implied by the downslope bending of tree trunks as it is at the Kurokoyama site, our test excavations suggest that pit excavation on a mountain slope basically works as a paleoseismological tool in mountainous regions.

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.114.5_724

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  • Small fault scarp or&ldquo; shishigaki&rdquo;, which is it?:a case study on the Neodani fault Reviewed

    Kaneda Heitaro

    Active Fault Research   2004 ( 24 )   95 - 101   2004

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    Pit excavation across a small uphill-facing fault scarp on a mountain slope could be a paleoseismological tool for active faults without suitable sites for traditional trenching. We tested this method on the Neodani fault, which is one of causative faults for the 1891 M 8.0 Nobi earthquake. We found an unnatural small uphill-facing scarp on a mountain slope just along the trace of the fault and decided that the scarp should have tectonic origin. However, pit excavation across it, radiocarbon ages from the pit, and following additional investigation on historical documentations reveal that it is probably one of ruins of a&ldquo; shishigaki&rdquo; (man-made protection wall against damage to crops by wild animals), which was built during the late Edo period (1804-1810 A. D. ). With the knowledge of a shishigaki, we would have previously recognized that the scarp was not a tectonic one: key observations are presence of level land along the scarp that used to be a paddy field (now woods), and common lack of recognizable vertical offset of a mountain slope across the scarp. As ruins of a shishigaki are reported to be widely distributed in all Japan except for Hokkaido and Tohoku regions, great care should be exercised with them in recognizing small fault scarps on a mountain slope.

    DOI: 10.11462/afr1985.2004.24_95

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  • Threshold of geomorphic detectability estimated from geologic observations of active low slip-rate strike-slip faults Reviewed

    Heitaro Kaneda

    Geophysical Research Letters   30 ( 5 )   42 - 1   2003.3

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    Sources of catastrophic earthquakes include not only major active faults, but also those with low slip rates. Geologic observations of two Japanese surface-rupturing earthquakes on low slip-rate strike-slip faults (the 1927 Kita-Tango and the 1943 Tottori earthquakes) suggests a concept of "threshold of geomorphic detectability" for strike-slip faults in humid mountainous regions. This threshold must be exceeded in order that progressive coseismic surface offset can be preserved as detectable faulted topography that may be otherwise erased by surface processes. The determined threshold minimum slip rates for both examples are about 0.1 mm/yr, which can be a quantitative explanation for lack of recognition and mapping of many active faults with slip rates of less than 0.1 mm/yr in Japan islands. Although this threshold is probably negligible in arid regions, it can produce another type of unrecognized active fault in humid mountainous regions, in addition to blind thrusts beneath thick sediments.

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  • Pit Excavation on a Mountain Slope as a Paleoseismic Investigation : A Case Study on the Daguchi Fault, Southwest Japan Reviewed

    KANEDA Heitaro, TAKEMURA Keiji, KANEHARA Masaaki

    Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)   111 ( 5 )   747 - 758   2002.10

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    Trench excavation is a less effective paleoseismic investigation for intramontane active faults because there are fewer good trench sites along them. We propose a new method called &ldquo;pit excavation on a mountain slope&rdquo; to determine the timing of the latest events of such faults. This method is carried out across a small uphill-facing fault scarp preserved on a mountain slope. Sediment trapped by the scarp should provide good information concerning the timing of the latest event.<BR>We applied the method to the northern segment of the Daguchi fault, one of the short rightlateral active faults in the Nosaka Mountains, north of Lake Biwa, southwest Japan. The rupture history of the segment has remained unknown because no good trench site exists along the fault trace. However, our precise geomorphological mapping revealed the presence of a 1 m-high uphill-facing fault scarp preserved on a mountain slope, and therefore we carried out a pit excavation across the scarp using man power. A very clear fault and 75 cm-thick trapped sediments were observed on the pit wall. Since these sediments showed neither displacement nor deformation associated with surface faulting, we interpret that they were all deposited after the latest event. For more accurate age control, we identified species and portion for wood fragments from the sediments. Unfortunately, all samples except those that could not be identified were parts of Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. or Cupressaceae, which can live for hundreds or even thousands of years : this means a possible large offset between deposition and radiocarbon age for these samples, leading to less accurate age control. However, some of them were from the outermost trunk, for which we can regard radiocarbon age as the deposition age in consideration of the very small catchment area of the pit site (several hundreds of m2). Based on the radiocarbon ages of the outermost trunk samples, the initiation of sediment trapping or equivalently the timing of the latest event is estimated to be about 1500 years ago (5th to 7th century AD).<BR>Our investigation on the Daguchi fault successfully revealed the accurate timing of the latest event, supporting the effectiveness of our new method. However, some problems remain unsolved, including application of the method to other faults, especially those with long dormancy, and necessity of a crosschecking excavation on a historically ruptured fault.

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.111.5_747

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  • Surface rupture associated with the 1943 Tottori earthquake:compilation of previous reports and its tectonic geomorphological implications Reviewed

    Kaneda Heitaro, Okada Atsumasa

    Active Fault Research   2002 ( 21 )   73 - 91   2002

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    Surface rupture with maximum right-lateral displacement of 150cm and length of about 1 lkm was observed during the 1943 Tottori earthquake of Mw: 7.0, which struck the eastern Tottori prefecture, southwest Japan. We compiled all the previous reports and papers regarding the surface rupture associated with the earthquake as precise location maps (Appendix 1) and a data table (Appendix 2). We also showed the slip distribution along the surface rupture (Fig.3).<BR>The trace of the 1943 surface rupture exhibited the large step and quite sinuous geometry compared with other strike-slip surface breaks. This observation probably means that the causative fault for Tottori earthquake is at the infant stage on its way of evolution based on the Wesnousky's fault evolution model (Wesnousky,1988). Most of the surface rupture during the earthquake occurred along the geomorphologically detectable active fault (Shikano-Yoshioka active fault system). Thus, we can recognize the possible surface faulting event around the epicentral area based on recent understanding of tectonic geomorpholgy. However, the length of the subsurface seismogenic fault is underestimated by the presently proposed method (Odagiri and Shimazaki,2000) and this sh ould lead to crucial underestimation of the seismic moment and also strong ground motions. The method to estimate the lengt h Df the seismogenic fault must be reestablished.

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  • Effects of surface-rupturing on structural damage Reviewed

    Kaneda Heitaro

    Active Fault Research   2001 ( 20 )   23 - 30   2001

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    Surface-rupturing earthquakes tend to cause larger damage than earthquakes without surface rupture (Takemura,1998). However, the degree of damage during an earthquake is largely influenced by population, surface geology and strength of houses in the epicentral area. I calculated the index valueIby eliminating the effects of population, surface geology and strength of houses from compiled damage data of 37 earthquakes occurred intraplate Japan during the past 115 years:I=D/(j&sdot;k&sdot;D7) whereDis number of collapsed houses during an earthquake, D7, is calculated number of collapsed houses when a point source of moment magnitude Mw: 7.0 (depth: Okm) is assumed at the epicenter, j is a coefficient of calibration for population chang e through time, and k is a coefficient of calibration for strength change of houses through time. A damage estimation program by National Land Agency of Japan is used for the damage calculation.<BR>Ivalues for surface-rupturing events are expected to be at leas t a factor of ten larger than those for events without surface rupture in the range of Mw: 6.4-6.6 which is an over-lap zone of both types of events. The difference of depth to the upper edge of the seismogenic fault between both types of events possibly explains this observation. However, I interpret it to suggest that source property changes when rupture cuts free surface and this might cause larger damage.<BR>All of the earthquakes ofI>0.5 are surface-rupturing events except ones which occurred beneath alluvial plains. Since all of surface-rupturing events occurred by movements of geomorphologically detectable active faults, I can empirically conclude that earthquake with large potential to cause great damage always occurs on geomorphologically detectable active fault except one beneath alluvial plain.

    DOI: 10.11462/afr1985.2001.20_23

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  • Trenching study on the Tonoda Fault of the Mitoke Active Fault System at Sekibayashi, Kyoto Prefecture, Southwest Japan Reviewed

    UEMURA Yoshihiro, OKADA Atsumasa, KANEDA Heitarou, KAWABATA Daisaku, TAKEMURA Keiji, MATSUURA Tabito

    Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)   109 ( 1 )   73 - 86   2000.2

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    The Mitoke active fault system (MAFS) is about 50 km long with a NW-WNW strike in the western margin of the Tamba Mountains, and is generally characterized by an uplifting of the northeast side accompanied by a left-lateral slip. The MAFS is composed of many active faults and is one of the largest active fault system in the northern Kinki district. The Tonoda fault is situated in the central part of the MAFS and is about 15 km long. Based on a study of the fault topography, the Tonoda fault acted with an uplifting northeastern side and a left-lateral slip during the late Quaternary period. A paleoseismological study was requested due to the lack of evidence on which to base on evaluation of earthquake risk.<BR>To clarify the age of the latest event and intervals of events of the Tonoda fault during the late Quaternary, trenches were excavated across the fault scarplet at Sekibayashi where this fault cut river terraces with a NW trend.<BR>The results of this study can be summarized as follows:<BR>This fault is a reverse fault with northeastern side up-thrown and fault planes dips about 80&deg; to the north. Based on differences of geologic section and fault striation, this is accompanied by a left lateral slip.<BR>1) The vertical displacements of depositional surfaces of Li and L2 terraces are 5 to 9m and 1.9-3m respectively, based on drilling and trenching data. This fault is characterized by a average vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3m/1, 000 years during the late Quaternary period.<BR>2) At trench B, three faulting events were identified since 11 ka. The latest event was dated to be 1, 950-2, 310y. B. P.(A. D. 100-B.C. 395), that is from the Middle Yayoi to Latest Jomon period. The second and third latest events were dated to be 5, 500-7, 500y. B. P, and 8, 500-10, 710y. B. P. The average reccurence interval of faulting is estimated to be about 3, 740 years. A much older faulting event from 17, 000-22, 000y. B. P. was only identified at trench A because of the poor resolution for a paleoseismicity analysis.

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.109.73

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  • Pictorial 2: Trenching study of the Tonoda Fault, Sekibayashi, Kyoto Prefecture, Southwest Japan

    UEMURA Yoshihiro, OKADA Atsumasa, KANEDA Heitarou, KAWABATA Daisaku, TAKEMURA Keiji, MATSUURA Tabito

    J. Geogr.   109 ( 1 )   plate7 - plate8   2000

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    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography/109.1_plate7

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  • Trench Excavation Survey Across the Ulsan (active) Fault at Kalgok-ri, Kyongju City, Southeast of Korea Reviewed

    OKADA Atsumasa, TAKEMURA Keiji, WATANABE Mitsuhisa, SUZUKI Yasuhiro, KYUNG jai-Bok, CHAE Yong-Hun, TANIGUCHI Kaoru, ISHIYAMA Tatsuya, KAWABATA Daisaku, KANEDA Heitaro, NARUSE Toshiro

    Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)   108 ( 3 )   276 - 288   1999.6

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Tokyo Geographical Society  

    DOI: 10.5026/jgeography.108.276

    CiNii Books

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Books

  • Surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake sequence in Southwest Japan

    Kumahara, Yasuhiro, Kaneda, Heitaro, Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    Springer Nature Singapore  2022  ( ISBN:9789811911491

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    Total pages:1 volume   Language:English  

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Research Projects

  • 活断層末端部周辺における大規模斜面崩壊の発生場および発生過程の解明

    Grant number:23H00728  2023.4 - 2026.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)  基盤研究(B)  中央大学

    金田 平太郎

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    Grant amount: \19110000 ( Direct Cost: \14700000 、 Indirect Cost: \4410000 )

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  • 微小断層変位地形および山体重力変形地形による活断層の連動史の解明

    Grant number:16H03112  2016.4 - 2021.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)  基盤研究(B)  千葉大学

    金田 平太郎

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    Grant amount: \16640000 ( Direct Cost: \12800000 、 Indirect Cost: \3840000 )

    一昨年度より継続していた根尾谷断層温見白谷上流地点および黒津断層黒津地点におけるトレンチにおいて,追加の壁面観察および年代測定試料採取を行ったのち,埋め戻しおよび原状復帰を行った.温見白谷上流地点においては,昨年秋から行っていた冬季積雪観測用カメラおよび雪尺の回収を行うとともに,表面露出年代測定(宇宙線生成核種Be-10による年代測定)用岩石試料の追加採取も実施した.積雪観測記録は1シーズンを通して正常に取得できており,今後,表面露出年代の積雪被覆補正に用いる予定である.また,黒津地点トレンチで追加採取した有機物試料(6試料)については,東京大学総合研究博物館年代測定室において放射性炭素年代測定を実施し,黒津断層の活動時期を絞り込むことができた.一方,根尾谷断層および温見断層における次の詳細調査地点選定のための予察的現地調査・コアリング調査も実施した.
    根尾谷断層北端近傍の山体重力地形集中域においては,現地に残置している可搬型パーカッションコアリングシステムを用いて,残っていた西部の小湿地群のコア掘削を行ったのち,すべての機器を回収して本調査地におけるコア掘削調査をすべて終了した.今後,採取したコアのテフラ分析および年代測定を実施する予定である.
    その他,濃尾断層系との比較のための現地調査を熊本県,出ノ口断層や静岡県,浜石岳周辺などで実施するとともに,屈斜路湖において濃尾活断層系で用いるための新たなコアリングシステムのテストを実施した.

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  • Development of gravitational slope deformation as precursor of deep-seated landslide

    Grant number:26400487  2014.4 - 2017.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Gifu University

    KOJIMA Satoru, KANEDA Heitaro, NAKAMURA Toshio, OHTANI Tomoyuki, KATSUTA Nagayoshi, NAGATA Hidehisa

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    Grant amount: \4680000 ( Direct Cost: \3600000 、 Indirect Cost: \1080000 )

    Double ridges and uphill-facing scarps are the results of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD), and are considered to be precursors of deep-seated landslides. Geological and geomorphological surveys in Northern Alps, Mino Mountains and Kii Peninsula were performed in order to clarify the developments of these landforms. As the results of surveys some of the DGSDs are stable during the last 100 thousand years and most of the DGSDs were formed in the warm and wet climate conditions just after the last glacial maximum. These lines of evidence indicate not all the DGSDs are the precursors of deep-seated landslides. Moreover the sediments accumulated in the linear depressions between the double ridges, one of the representative DGSDs, have recorded several kinds of signals of environmental changes.

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  • Relation between gravitational slope deformation and active fault based on regional mapping of small geomorphic features

    Grant number:24700945  2012.4 - 2015.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)  Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)  Chiba University

    KANEDA Heitaro, KOJIMA Satoru

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    Grant amount: \4290000 ( Direct Cost: \3300000 、 Indirect Cost: \990000 )

    Stereoscopic interpretation of high-resolution LiDAR DEMs reveals that as many as more than 10,000 sackung (deep-seated gravitational slope deformation; DSGSD) features are hidden under forest canopies in the western Mino Mountains, central Japan. Our analysis suggests that the density of sackung features is controlled by presence of active faults as well as topography (altitude and ridgeness). We also conducted trilling and pit excavation studies at sackung features concentrated adjacent to the northern tip of the active Neodani fault and found that those features began to be created after the last glacial maximum, with multiple deformation episodes since then.

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  • Geomorphic and seismotectonic study on large earthquake occurrence potential based on rocky coast mapping and cataloging in Japan

    Grant number:23300336  2011.4 - 2015.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Chiba University

    MIYAUCHI TAKAHIRO, MAEMOKU Hideaki, SHISHIKURA Masanobu, TSUTSUMI Hirouyuki, KNANEDA Heitaro, IMAIZUMI Toshifumi, ECHIGO Tomoo, KAGOHARA Kyoko, ISHIMURA Daisuke

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    Grant amount: \20800000 ( Direct Cost: \16000000 、 Indirect Cost: \4800000 )

    We mapped the present tidal-abrasion topography and Holocene emerged tidal-abrasion topography and prepared the coastal catalog along Japanese Islands where large earthquakes have frequently occurred. Relating paleoearthquakes deciphered in them to off-shore active faults , we seismotectonically re-examined the potentials of M7 class earthquakes which will occur below the shallow submarine bottom off the Japanese coasts. As a result, the possibility of succeeding large earthquakes is recognized in Hokkaido, Tohoku and Hokuriku district along the Sea of Japan in geological time scale. Each coastal area along the Pacific coasts of Japan has repeatedly experienced great earthquakes. Especially, the northern Sanriku coast and the southern coastal area of Boso peninsula will be struck by M8-9 class earthquakes in the next several hundred years.

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  • Prehistoric earthquake and heavy-rain disasters and their future prediction by the analyses of dammed-lake sediments

    Grant number:23540531  2011 - 2013

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Gifu University

    KOJIMA Satoru, SUZUKI Kazuhiro, NAKAMURA Toshio, KANEDA Heitaro, OHTANI Tomoyuki, KATSUTA Nagayoshi

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    Grant amount: \5070000 ( Direct Cost: \3900000 、 Indirect Cost: \1170000 )

    Kiritani and Koinami villages in Yatsuo town, Toyama city, are located on the flat basins; they were originally dammed-lakes formed by large landslides. The ages of landslides were estimated by 14C ages of wood fragments embedded in the lake sediments and landslide debris, and they indicate that the landslides were triggered by the earthquake, probably the penultimate activity of the Atotsugawa fault. The sackungen in the Etsumi mountains along the Gifu-Fukui prefecture boundary were formed in the warm climate during or after the last glacial prediod. The dammed-lake sediments and the sackungen-basin sediments in the eastern Kii Peninsula recorded events interpreted as earthquakes and heavy rainfalls.

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  • 温見断層-根尾谷断層境界域の山地斜面に多数見られる低崖地形の分布,成因と形成時期 -off-fault古地震調査対象としての可能性-

    2010 - 2011

    国土地理協会  学術研究助成 

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  • Research on active tectonics in central Japan based on integrated seismic experiments with long shot- and receiver- offsets

    Grant number:20224016  2008 - 2010

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S)  Chiba University

    ITO TAnio, SATO Toshinori, TSUMURA Noriko, MIYAUCHI Takahiro, IWASAKI Takaya, SATO Hiroshi, IKEDA Yasutaka, KANO Ken'ichi, MIYAKE Yasuyuki, KANEDA Heitaro

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    Grant amount: \98540000 ( Direct Cost: \75800000 、 Indirect Cost: \22740000 )

    Previous geological researches have suggested that the active tectonics of Central Japan has been controlled by the motion and configuration of the Philippine Sea Plate, and also by the complicate crustal structure formed during the growth of Japanese Island Arc. This study has successfully obtained the seismic profiles from the upper surface of the Philippine Sea Plate up to the active surface faults at both the southeast and the northwest borders of Central Japan based on the integrated seismic experiments with long shot- and receiver- offsets. We believe the profiles provide essential data effective to further researches.

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  • 短い活断層を対象とした地震危険度評価手法の高精度化に関する総合的研究

    Grant number:03J10463  2003 - 2004

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費  特別研究員奨励費 

    金田 平太郎

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    Grant amount: \1800000 ( Direct Cost: \1800000 )

    年度前半では,昨年度に引き続き,3条の活断層が連動破壊した事例である1891年濃尾地震についての変動地形学調査(地形地質調査,測量調査),特に,根尾谷断層についての調査を実施し,基礎的なデータの取得を完了した.その結果,根尾谷断層が少なくとも過去約15万年間,1.4±0.2mm/yrのほぼ等速度で左横ずれ運動を続けてきたこと,地震時変位量分布と平均変位速度分布の形状が酷似することを見出した.これらの事実は,根尾谷断層が,他の活断層との連動の有無に関わらず,同様の形態の変位(相似変位)を繰り返してきたことを示しており,活断層の連動破壊問題・グルーピング問題についての重要な知見を得たと考えている(Kaneda and Okada,準備中).ただし,形態のみではなく量も同様の変位(合同変位)を繰り返してきたのかどうかについては,トレンチ調査など今後のさらなる調査が必要である.また,以上の結果を基に,濃尾地震震源域の地形学的検知限界を0.3±0.05mm/yrと求めた.この値は1927年北丹後,1943年鳥取両地震の震源域で求められた値(0.1±0.025mm/yr)より有意に大きく,濃尾地震震源域の速い削剥速度が地形学的検知限界を引き上げている可能性が高いと考えられる.
    年度後半では,濃尾地震と同様のアメリカの連動破壊事例である1992年Landers,1999年Hector Mine地震についての変動地形学的調査を実施するため,両地震についての調査・研究を行っているTom Rockwell教授(San Diego State Univ.)の研究室に移り,基礎的な資料(空中写真・地形図・資料等)の収集を行った.
    なお,当初,行う予定であった,地形学的検知限界を下回る活断層の検知・評価方法についての研究は,十分な時間が確保できず,成果をあげることができなかった。

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