Updated on 2024/02/01

写真a

 
NAKANO Tomoko
 
Organization
Faculty of Economics Professor
Contact information
The inquiry by e-mail is 《here
External link

Degree

  • 博士(理学) ( 北海道大学 )

  • 修士(学術) ( 北海道大学 )

Education

  • 1995.3
     

    Hokkaido University   Graduate School, Division of Natural Science   doctor course   completed

  • 1992.3
     

    Hokkaido University   Graduate School, Division of Environmental Science   master course   completed

  • 1990.3
     

    Hokkaido University   Faculty of Science   graduated

  • 1986.3
     

    北海道立札幌西高等学校   graduated

Research History

  • 2011.4 -  

    中央大学経済学部教授

  • 2009.4 - 2011.3

    中央大学経済学部准教授

  • 2004.4 - 2009.3

    中央大学経済学部兼任講師

  • 1997.4 - 2009.3

    東京都立大学理学部助手(首都大学東京都市環境学部助教)

  • 1996.10 - 1997.3

    環境庁国立環境研究所科学技術特別研究員

  • 1996.4 - 1996.9

    北海道大学低温科学研究所COE研究員

  • 1995.4 - 1996.3

    北海道大学低温科学研究所研究生

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Professional Memberships

  • 日本雪氷学会

  • アメリカ地球物理学連合(American Geophysical Union)

  • 日本農業気象学会

  • 日本地理学会

Research Interests

  • Carbon cycle

Research Areas

  • Environmental Science/Agriculture Science / Environmental dynamic analysis  / 環境動態解析

Papers

  • Applicability of digital camera images to estimate vegetation parameters in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia Reviewed

    Nakano T, Kurosaki Y, Ito TY, Iijima Y, Bavuudorj G

    Journal of Agricultural Meteorology   79 ( 3 )   114 - 119   2023.7

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    DOI: 10.2480/agrmet.D-20-00008

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  • Early validation study of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the GCOM-C satellite in Mongolian grasslands Reviewed

    Undrakh Bayarsaikhan, Tomoko Kawaguchi Akitsu, Kaoru Tachiiri, Taiga Sasagawa, Tomoko Nakano, Bayar-Saikhan Uudus, Kenlo Nishida Nasahara

    International Journal of Remote Sensing   43 ( 14 )   5145 - 5172   2022.7

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Informa UK Limited  

    DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2022.2128923

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  • Large‐scale ecological field data for satellite validation in deciduous forests and grasslands Reviewed

    Tomoko Kawaguchi Akitsu, Tatsuro Nakaji, Hajime Kobayashi, Tetsuo Okano, Yoshiaki Honda, Undrakh Bayarsaikhan, Terigele, Masato Hayashi, Tsutom Hiura, Reiko Ide, Susumu Igarashi, Koji Kajiwara, Syoji Kumikawa, Yuuichi Matsuoka, Takashi Nakano, Tomoko Nakano, Atsushi Okuda, Tomoaki Sato, Kaoru Tachiiri, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Jiro Uchida, Kenlo Nishida Nasahara

    Ecological Research   35 ( 6 )   1009 - 1028   2020.10

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Wiley  

    DOI: 10.1111/1440-1703.12155

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    Other Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1111/1440-1703.12155

  • Responses of palatable plants to climate and grazing in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia Reviewed

    Nakano, T, Bat-Oyun, T, Shinoda, M

    Global Ecology and Conservation   24   e01231   2020.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01231

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  • Quantitative evaluation of grazing effect on nomadically grazed grassland ecosystems by using time-lapse cameras Reviewed

    Nakano, T, Bavuudorj, Iijima, Y, Ito, T

    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment   287   106685   2020.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER  

    Grazing is a key factor in grassland disturbance that affects plant biomass, soil properties, and carbon exchange in grasslands. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of grazing on grassland ecosystems in Mongolia. To this end, we developed a new method for determining the actual and quantitative livestock effects. Fenced (ungrazed) plots were established in two nomadically grazed grasslands in Mongolia, Bayan-Unjuul (BU) and Baganuur (BN), and time-lapse cameras were installed at the plots for photographing outside the fences (grazed area) every 10 min. Using images collected for 3 years (2016 - 2018), we counted the number of livestock animals by species and calculated grazing intensity (GI). In addition, we investigated plant biomass; CO2 fluxes including gross primary production and ecosystem respiration; and soil properties during mid-August at the BU and BN sites. Our new method enabled us to quantitatively assess the seasonal and interannual variations and spatial differences in GI. Livestock used the BU site mainly in spring but the BN site in summer. Using the seasonal GIs, we performed linear regressions to examine grazing effects on plant biomass, CO2 exchanges, and soil properties. Our results indicated that, among the livestock species we monitored, grazing by goats most strongly affects the grassland function and structures. GI negatively correlated with aboveground biomass (AGB), CO2 fluxes, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting that these parameters decreased with increasing GI. The effect size of grazing on AGB was negative for all years and sites, indicating that grazing consistently decreased AGB, whereas CO2 fluxes, SOC, and TN were positive when the GI was low. By using our new method, we obtained the certain values of GI at which the grazing effect shifted from positive to negative.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2019.106685

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  • Interannual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its climatic controls in a semiarid grassland of mongolia Reviewed

    Tomoko Nakano, Masato Shinoda

    Journal of Agricultural Meteorology   74 ( 2 )   92 - 96   2018

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan  

    Year-round eddy covariance flux measurements were made in a semiarid grassland in Mongolia during 2009-2014 to examine the interannual variability in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its climatic controls. Annual cumulative NEE ranged from -20.9 to 8.1 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating that the semiarid grassland ecosystem can be a carbon source or a carbon sink, depending on climatic conditions. A correlation analysis showed that interannual variability in NEE was significantly related to precipitation and soil water content at 10 cm depth (SWC10) in June and to the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in July. In addition, the variation in gross primary production (GPP) in July contributed most to the interannual variation in NEE
    and GPP in July was significantly related to June precipitation, June SWC10, and July VPD. From these results, we concluded that precipitation during the early growing season and air dryness during the middle growing season were essential climatic factors regulating the interannual variation in NEE in this semiarid grassland.

    DOI: 10.2480/agrmet.D-17-00035

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  • Modeling gross primary production and ecosystem respiration in a semiarid grassland of Mongolia. Reviewed

    Nakano, T, Shinoda, M

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition   61 ( 1 )   106 - 115   2015.2

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition  

    We constructed an empirical model in which the rates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R_<eco>) were calculated using meteorological, soil and plant variables, based on our previous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO_2) fluxes using a closed-chamber technique in Mongolian grasslands. In the previous studies, we determined GPP and R_<eco> using transparent and opaque chambers and simultaneously measured the environmental variables inside and beside the chambers. These measurements allowed us to quantify direct and accurate relationships between the rates of GPP and R_<eco> and their controlling factors. The GPP, R_<eco> and their difference net ecosystem CO_2 exchange (NEE) were computed in a semiarid grassland site of Mongolia for the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 using observed values of photo-synthetically active radiation, air and soil temperatures, vapor pressure deficit, soil water content and estimated values of aboveground biomass from a remotely sensed vegetation index. Model performance was validated by comparing the modeled and observed NEE values using an eddy covariance technique. Results showed that the model successfully reproduced the magnitude and seasonal variations of the observed NEE, and regression analysis showed reasonable agreement in both years. Cumulative rates of GPP and R_<eco> during the plant-growing season (May - September) were 200.3 and 210.5 g carbon (C) m^<-2> in the dry year (2010) and 342.3 and 300.1 g C m^<-2> in the wet year (2011), respectively. This result indicates that drought was more effective in reducing CO_2 uptake by the plant than in reducing ecosystem respiration. Consequently, the grassland ecosystem was a net carbon source during the growing season in 2010 and a net carbon sink in 2011.

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  • Spatial variability of photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration on a hundred-kilometer scale within a Mongolian semiarid grassland Reviewed

    Tomoko Nakano, Masato Shinoda

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY   70 ( 2 )   105 - 116   2014.6

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SOC AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY JAPAN  

    Grassland ecosystems cover a large area of the land surface and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial variability of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R-eco) within a semiarid grassland ecosystem and to evaluate the environmental factors that control the spatial patterns of carbon exchanges. We determined GPP and R-eco using transparent and opaque closed chambers at nine grassland sites in central Mongolia during the summers from 2009 through 2011. To remove effects of temporal changes in radiation and temperature, GPP and R-eco were fitted to light- and temperature-response curves. The fitting parameters (light-saturated GPP [P-max], apparent quantum yield [alpha], standardized R-eco at 20 degrees C [R-20], and the temperature sensitivity [Q(10)] of R-eco) were compared among the sites. The GPP and R-eco parameters differed significantly among the sites. Spatial patterns of P-max and R-20 were highly correlated with plant aboveground green biomass (A GB) and number of plant species. The Q(10) of R-eco was significantly related to soil moisture. The light-saturated GPP normalized to the amount of AGB did not differ significantly among the sites, whereas the R-20 residuals of the linear biomass model were correlated with soil water content and carbon/nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that, within this semiarid grassland, spatial variations of GPP are strongly controlled by AGB and that variations in R-eco are associated mainly with AGB and secondarily with soil water content and soil nutrient condition.

    DOI: 10.2480/agrmet.D-13-00026

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  • Monitoring aboveground biomass in semiarid grasslands using MODIS images Reviewed

    Tomoko Nakano, Ganbat Bavuudorj, Nachinshonhor G. Urianhai, Masato Shinoda

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY   69 ( 1 )   33 - 39   2013

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SOC AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY JAPAN  

    In the present study, we calculated seven vegetation indices (simple ratio [SR], normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI], enhanced vegetation index [EVI], soil-adjusted vegetation index [SAVI], optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index [OSAVI], land surface water index [LSWI], and greenery ratio [GR]) based on MODIS surface reflectance data and analyzed the relationships between these indices and the aboveground biomass in semiarid grasslands in Mongolia. The measured values of the biomass for the study area ranged from 7.5 to 137.0 g dry weight (dw) m(-2). The results revealed that NDVI, SR, and OSAVI were strongly correlated with the biomass. Among these, NDVI showed the best performance as a proxy of the plant biomass of Mongolian grasslands. The relationships of NDVI and OSAVI with the temporal variation and spatial pattern of biomass were statistically similar, suggesting that a single linear equation was appropriate to derive aboveground biomass values from NDVI or OSAVI.

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  • Temporal and spatial variability of nocturnal cooling in a complex of small valleys in the Kanto Plain during the winter Reviewed

    Shohei Konno, Tomoko Nakano, Hideo Takahashi

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY   69 ( 3 )   191 - 200   2013

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SOC AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY JAPAN  

    We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of nighttime temperatures in a complex of small valleys in the western Kanto Plain, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, by conducting horizontal and vertical temperature measurements throughout one winter season. The magnitude of nocturnal cooling in the valley was greater in March than during the mid-winter period. The horizontal distribution of mean nighttime temperatures and nocturnal cooling under clear and calm conditions indicated that temperatures in the middle or lower areas of the valleys tended to be lower than those in the upper areas even though the elevation differences were small. Vertical profiles of air temperature measured by a kytoon system on clear nights revealed the development of a temperature inversion above the valley floor at night; the top of the inversion exceeded the height of the ridge adjacent to the valley. Under these conditions, down-valley flows of cold air were a significant phenomenon below the inversion layer. Our results suggest that local nocturnal drainage flow below the temperature inversion could contribute to nocturnal cooling in these valleys.

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  • 都市内緑地における落葉広葉樹の樹液流速とその環境要素への依存性, 生物と気象 Reviewed

    桐越仁美, 中野智子

    生物と気象   11   31 - 40   2011.12

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:日本農業気象学会  

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  • Modeling of the interannual variation in ecosystem respiration in a semiarid grassland ecosystem

    Nakano, T, Shinoda, M

    Principles, Application and Assessment in Soil Science   167 - 178   2011.12

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    Language:English   Publisher:InTech  

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  • 都市内緑地におけるクールアイランドの鉛直構造 Reviewed

    菅原広史, 田中博春, 成田健一, 中野智子, 三上岳彦

    地学雑誌   120   426 - 432   2011.4

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  • Estimation of methane emission from west siberian lowland with subpixel land cover characterization between MODIS and ASTER

    Wataru Takeuchi, Tomoko Nakano, Yoshifumi Yasuoka

    Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing   11   421 - 437   2011

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Part of collection (book)   Publisher:Springer International Publishing  

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems in the world. The West Siberian Lowland (WSL) is the world’s largest high-latitude wetland covering nearly two-thirds of western Siberia
    thus, remote sensing techniques play an important role in monitoring them. At least half of this area consists of peatlands, which sequester atmospheric carbon in the form of slightly decomposed plant matter. WSL is considered a net source of methane gas, which is one of the most important greenhouse gases. High spatial resolution satellite data are effective for monitoring land cover type changes, but cannot cover a wide area because of a narrow swath width. On the other hand, global scale data are indispensable in covering large areas, but are too coarse to acquire detailed information because of their low spatial resolution. We need to devise a method for data fusion with different spatial resolutions for monitoring such scale-variant phenomena. In this chapter, a Terra ASTER image near Noyabrsk mire is used to map six wetland ecosystems (bare soil, birch forest, conifer forest, open bog, open water, and palsa) supplemented by field observation. Spectral mixture analysis is then performed between Terra MODIS and ASTER data acquired on the same day. Field observations of CH4 flux are subsequently scaled up with these different spatial resolution satellite data. Each of the wetland ecosystem coverage fraction at the subpixel level is provided by spectral mixture analysis. Field observation shows that the mean rate of CH4 emission from open bog and open water averaged 123.1 and 24.6 mg C/m2/day, respectively. The methane emission from the area is estimated by multiplying these average methane emission rates and the fraction coverage in each MODIS pixel. Finally, the total methane emission over MODIS coverage is estimated at 1.86 × 109 g CH4/day and the mean methane emission over MODIS coverage was calculated as 43.1 mg C/m2/day. We conclude that this mean value is within the probabilistic variability when compared with the other research results.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6749-7_18

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  • Response of ecosystem respiration to soil water and plant biomass in a semiarid grassland Reviewed

    Tomoko Nakano, Masato Shinoda

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   56 ( 5 )   773 - 781   2010.10

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    The Mongolian steppe zone constitutes a major part of East Asian grasslands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative dependence of ecosystem respiration (R-eco) on the environmental variables of soil water and plant biomass in a semiarid grassland ecosystem. We determined R-eco using opaque, closed chambers in a Mongolian grassland dominated by graminaceous perennial grasses during six periods: July 2004, May 2005, July 2005, September 2005, June 2006, and August 2009. Using the data collected when soil water content and aboveground biomass were relatively constant, values of R-eco were fitted to an exponential temperature function, and the standardized rate of R-eco at 20 degrees C (R-20) and temperature sensitivity (Q(10)) of R-eco were calculated for each measurement plot and period. The results indicate that aboveground biomass significantly affected the variation in R-20, and the relationship was expressed with a linear model. The R-20 residuals of the linear biomass model were highly correlated with soil water content by a quadratic function. The Q(10) values showed a weak positive relationship with soil water content. Temporal and spatial variations in R-eco were well predicted by the exponential temperature model with R-20, which relates to aboveground biomass and soil water content, and with Q(10), which relates to soil water content.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2010.00502.x

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  • Environmental controls on photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia Reviewed

    Nakano, T, Nemoto, M, Shinoda, M

    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology   148   1456 - 1466   2008.8

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  • Meteorological observations at Tokyo Metropolitan University since 2001

    Nakano, T

    Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University   43   131 - 136   2008.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution)   Publisher:首都大学東京都市環境学部地理環境コース  

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  • Measurements of Nighttime Water Vapor Flux Using a Closed Chamber Technique Reviewed

    Tomoko Nakano, Manabu Nemoto, Masato Shinoda

    Journal of Agricultural Meteorology   63 ( 2 )   103 - 107   2007.9

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    Nighttime water vapor transportation from the atmosphere to the ground surface, which involves dew formation and water vapor adsorption to the soil, is very small, yet its contribution to the water budget has been recognized as important, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied a closed-chamber (CC) technique to measure nighttime water vapor flux between the atmosphere and a grassland ecosystem and used a microlysimeter (ML) method to validate the results of the CC measurements. The CC measurements were conducted on nine nights in May, July, and September of 2005 and June of 2006 at a Mongolian semiarid grassland. The results of our study indicate that water vapor was transported upward during five nights and downward during four nights, and the magnitude of nighttime water vapor fluxes ranged between -0.011 mm h-1 and 0.011 mm h-1 (a positive value represents upward transportation). We also found that downward vapor transportations were involved in both dew formation and direct water vapor adsorption. The results of the CC and ML methods showed good agreement, suggesting that the CC method is appropriate for measuring small water vapor fluxes. © 2007, The Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.2480/agrmet.63.103

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  • 密閉式チャンバー法を用いた夜間水蒸気フラックスの測定 Reviewed

    中野智子, 根本学, 篠田雅人

    農業気象   63 ( 2 )   103 - 107   2007.6

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    Other Link: http://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/2010741486

  • モンゴル半乾燥草原における草本―大気間のCO2交換

    中野智子, 根本学, 篠田雅人

    筑波大学陸域環境センター報告   7 ( 2 )   51 - 53   2007.3

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  • サブピクセル土地被覆特性解析による西シベリア湿地性森林の火災地回復観測 Reviewed

    竹内渉, 中野智子, 越智士郎, 安岡善文

    日本リモートセンシング学会誌   27 ( 1 )   13 - 23   2007.1

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:日本リモートセンシング学会  

    Recently, the number of forest fires in West Siberian Lowland (WSL) is increasing and they are considered as one of the main driving factors influencing carbon cycling in whole earth. Since many forest fires take place in large and hardly accessible areas, remote sensing seems to be the most appropriate tool for creating forest fire recovering history. In this paper, SPOT HRV and Landsat ETM images were used to highlight the damaged area by fire that occurred in the summer of 1998. The damaged area was extracted by using principal component analysis supplemented by ground truth data. The total burnt area was calculated to be 13.8 (km2). Then re-generation condition in burnt area from 1995 to 2002 was investigated using NOAA AVHRR data with sub-pixel land cover characterization. We demonstrate that the phenomena observed by remote sensing data is consistent with climatic data including daily precipitation and temperature. The method proposed in this study can be an effective way for forest recovering monitoring.

    DOI: 10.11440/rssj.27.13

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  • Changes in surface methane flux after a forest fire in West Siberia

    Nakano, T

    Hatano, R. and Guggenberger, G. eds., Symptom of Environmental Change in Siberian Permafrost Region   55 - 63   2006.4

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  • モンゴル半乾燥草原における密閉式チャンバー法を用いたCO2フラックス測定

    中野智子, 根本学, 篠田雅人

    CGER-REPORTS『炭素循環および温室効果ガス観測ワークショップ講演要旨集』   150 - 151   2006.3

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (conference, symposium, etc.)   Publisher:国立環境研究所地球環境研究センター  

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  • Temporal variations in soil-atmosphere methane exchange after fire in a peat swamp forest in West Siberia Reviewed

    Nakano,T, Takeuchi, W, Inoue, G, Fukuda, M, Yasuoka Y

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition   52   77 - 88   2006.1

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  • Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia Reviewed

    T Nakano, G Inoue, M Fukuda

    TELLUS SERIES B-CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY   56 ( 3 )   223 - 229   2004.7

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:BLACKWELL MUNKSGAARD  

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 Mg C m(-2) h(-1) and from 110 to 400 mg C m(-2) h(-1) respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption.

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  • Meteorological observations at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 2002 and 2003

    Nakano, T, Mikami, T

    Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University   39   13 - 20   2004.3

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    Language:English   Publisher:東京都立大学理学部地理学科  

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  • 現地観測と衛星画像解析に基づく森林火災後の地表面メタンフラックス推定

    中野智子, 竹内渉

    生研フォーラム『宇宙からの地球環境モニタリング』第13回論文集   52 - 57   2004.3

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:東京大学生産技術研究所  

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  • A comparison of regression methods for estimating soil-atmosphere diffusion gas fluxes by a closed-chamber technique Reviewed

    T Nakano, T Sawamoto, T Morishita, G Inoue, R Hatano

    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY   36 ( 1 )   107 - 113   2004.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Continuous changes in methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations inside a closed chamber were measured on the forest floor at three sites: a deciduous forest and a coniferous forest in Hokkaido, Japan, and a birch forest in West Siberia, Russian Federation. Flux estimations by three types of regression methods, exponential, nonlinear, and linear, were examined using field-collected concentration data. The pattern of change with time of the gas concentration in the headspace differed, mainly according to site but also, to a lesser extent, according to the gas. This was a function of both the chamber height and surface soil property relating to soil gas diffusion and the gas concentration profile. Flux estimations did not differ statistically between the exponential and nonlinear methods for either gas at any site, because both of those regression methods were based on diffusion theory. However, the flux values estimated by linear regression were significantly different from those estimated by the other two methods for both CH4 and CO2 at the deciduous forest site and for CO2 at the coniferous forest site. Shortening the chamber deployment period improved the linearity of the curve, but did not completely eliminate the error. Our results suggest that linear regression is not a good model of the change in headspace concentration with time. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2003.07.005

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  • Meteorological observations at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 2001

    Nakano, T, Mikami, T

    Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University   38   23 - 27   2003.3

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    Language:English   Publisher:東京都立大学理学部地理学科  

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  • 三宅島の気象

    中野智子, 木村圭司, 根本学 他

    地理   48 ( 1 )   23 - 27   2003.1

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:古今書院  

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  • 西シベリアの白樺林における森林火災前後の炭素循環の変化

    中野智子, 朝日知歩, 越智士郎

    生研フォーラム『宇宙からの地球環境モニタリング』第11回論文集   56 - 59   2002.3

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  • Estimation of methane emission from West Siberian Lowland with sub-pixel land cover characterization

    Wataru Takeuchi, Tomoko Nakano, Shiro Ochi, Yoshifumi Yasuoka

    International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS)   4   2351 - 2353   2002

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    West Siberian Lowland (WSL) is the world's largest high-latitude wetland covering nearly 2/3 of western Siberia. At least half of this area consists of peatlands, which sequester atmospheric carbon in the form of unde-composed plant matter and it is presumed to be the source of methane gas. In this paper, firstly, an ASTER image near Noyabrsk mire was used to map 6 wetland ecosystem (red pine, white birch, bog, palsa, open water and bare soil) supplemented by field observation. Then spectral linear mixture analysis was performed between MODIS and ASTER data acquired on the same day. Secondly, field observations were scaled up with these different spatial resolution satellite data. Each of the wetland ecosystem coverage ratio in sub-pixel level was provided by the spectral linear mixture analysis. Field observation shows that the mean rate of CH4 emission from bog and open water averaged 5.246 and 1.081 (mg CH4 m-2h-1) respectively. The methane emission from the area was estimated by multiplying these average methane emission rate and the area percentage of bog and open water in each pixel. Finally, the mean methane emission over MODIS coverage was estimated 1.864 (109g CH4/day).

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  • 人工造成地における土壌からのCO2フラックスの日変化 Reviewed

    中野智子, 亀井千絵

    農業気象   57 ( 3 )   155 - 159   2001.9

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    Diurnal variation in CO2 flux from the soil was measured by a closed chamber technique at a developed land site in Tokyo from September to November in 1999. The measurements were made four times for 24-h periods at two fixed sites where there was no plant cover (A) and where Miscanthus sinensis was dominant (B). CO2 fluxes averaged 98.2mg CO2 m-2h-1 at the site A and 184.3mg CO2 m-2h-1 at the site B. The fluxes from both sites showed a clear diurnal variation, which was high during the day and low at night. The temporal variation was highly correlated with the air and soil temperatures, especially at depths of 1 and 5cm. The relationship between CO2 flux and temperature was exponential. The CO2 flux increased exponentially 1.99 times when the soil temperature at 1cm deep increased by 10°C.

    DOI: 10.2480/agrmet.57.155

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  • シベリアにおける広域メタン発生量の推定

    中野智子

    生研フォーラム『宇宙からの地球環境モニタリング』第10回論文集   13 - 16   2001.3

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  • Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in a birch forest in West Siberia after burning

    Nakano, T, Asahi, C, Inoue, G

    Proceedings of 9th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 2000   145 - 149   2001.3

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  • Meteorological observations at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 2000

    Nakano, T, Mikami, T

    Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University   36   11 - 16   2001.3

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  • Methane flux in grassy marshlands near Kolyma River, north-eastern Siberia Reviewed

    S. Tsuyuzaki, T. Nakano, S. I. Kuniyoshi, M. Fukuda

    Soil Biology and Biochemistry   33 ( 10 )   1419 - 1423   2001

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    The relationships between vegetation types and methane flux were evaluated in north-eastern Siberia in the summer of 1995. Based on 71 50 × 50-cm plots, the vegetation was divided into three types by TWINSPAN cluster analysis: (1) Eriophorum grassland where species richness was high and moss well-established (Eriophorum grassland), (2) horsetail grassland with moss cover and (3) Carex grassland without moss. Vascular plant cover in all vegetation types was less than 50%. The methane flux was measured by a static chamber method. Horsetail grassland emitted the highest amount of methane, 165.5 mg CH4/m2/d, while diverse-sedge grassland emitted less methane, i.e., -1.9 mg CH4/m2/d. Methane flux positively increased with electric conductivity (EC), water depth, thaw depth, and soil humidity. Of those, EC was strongly correlated to methane emission (Spearman's rank correlation, r2 = 0.630). The difference in methane flux between horsetail grassland and sedge-dominated grassland suggested that the morphological characteristics of vascular plants were important on methane transport, probably because vascular plants, such as horsetail, that developed aerenchyma and intercellular gas space promoted methane transport from soil to air while mosses do not. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00058-X

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  • Measurements of methane flux at a burnt forest in West Siberia: preliminary results

    Nakano, T, Fukuda, M, Utsumi, M

    Proceedings of 8th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1999   160 - 164   2000.3

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  • Temporal variation in methane emission from tundra wetlands in a permafrost area, northeastern Siberia Reviewed

    T Nakano, S Kuniyoshi, M Fukuda

    ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT   34 ( 8 )   1205 - 1213   2000

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    Summer variations in net methane flux and environmental variables were investigated in a Siberian permafrost area during the summers of 1993 and 1995. In each region, the measurements were made at two fixed sites: waterlogged wetlands and relatively dry grasslands. Methane flux from the waterlogged site at Tiksi (71.5 degrees N, 130.0 degrees E) averaged 46.3 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1). Flux from the waterlogged Site at Chersky (68.5 degrees N, 161.4 degrees E) was approximately one order of magnitude greater than that at Tiksi and averaged 281.1 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1). Fluxes from the relatively dry sites were near zero and frequently negative in both regions. The emissions from the waterlogged sites showed diurnal and intraseasonal variation, while no significant variation in flux was observed at the dry sites. Our results suggest that temporal variation in methane flux From waterlogged sires in permafrost areas was controlled by the thermal regime of a seasonal thaw layer. The diurnal variation in the flux was correlated with ground temperature at a depth of 10-30 cm. For summer-season variation. the correlation between flux and centimeter-degrees, which is the product of ground temperature and thaw depth, was quite strong. The parameter, centimeter-degrees, is expected to be a good predictive indicator of methane emission from wetlands in permafrost areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • Meteorological data at the 15 m observational tower in Tokyo Metropolitan University

    Suzuki, C, Nakano, T, Masuda, K

    Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University   34   73 - 80   1999.3

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  • Studies on CH4 fluxes from alpine wetlands at the Huashixia permafrost station, Tibetan Plateau Reviewed

    Jin, H, Cheng, G, Xu, B, Nakano, T

    Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology (in Chinese)   20   172 - 174   1998.6

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  • Automatic measurements of methane flux in West Siberian wetlands in 1997 summer

    Nakano, T, Inoue, G, Maksyutoc, S

    Proceedings of 6th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1997   211 - 215   1998.3

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  • Development of an automatic system for the field measurement of methane flux

    Nakano, T, Inoue, G

    Proceedings of 5th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1996   45 - 49   1997.3

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  • 北海道・大雪山における最終氷期以降の永久凍土の厚さの変化 Reviewed

    中野智子

    雪氷   57 ( 2 )   125 - 132   1995.6

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:日本雪氷学会  

    The objective of this study is to estimate the response of the permafrost at the Daisetsu Mountains, central Hokkaido to a continuous climatic change. A one-dimensional, nonsteady state, heat conduction model with phase change is used to calculate the change of permafrost thickness during the last 20, 000 years. The result of simulation shows that the permafrost responded quickly to the surface temperature change and it has remained without thaw since the Last Glacial Maximum. The minimum permafrost thickness is estimated at 11.5 m at about 5 kyr B. P. and reached to 30.1 m at present. The simulation also indicates that the permafrost thickness is sensitive to soil water content and ground heat flow.

    DOI: 10.5331/seppyo.57.125

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    Other Link: https://jlc.jst.go.jp/DN/JALC/00033967462?from=CiNii

  • Estimation of methane emission from Siberian tundra wetlands

    Nakano, T

    Proceedings of 3th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1994   31 - 36   1995.3

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  • 携帯用自動ガス分析装置を用いたメタンフラックスの野外測定法 Reviewed

    中野智子, 秋山明胤, 福田正己

    天気   41 ( 10 )   685 - 689   1994.10

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    Other Link: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/10601550

  • Measurement of methane flux in a tundra wetland, Mustakh Island in 1993

    Nakano, T, Akiyama, A

    Proceedings of 2th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1993   37 - 39   1994.3

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  • Measurement of methane flux ifrom alases around Yakutsk, eastern Siberia in 1993

    Nakano, T, Nojiri, Y, Zeng, Y

    Proceedings of 2th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1993   40 - 44   1994.3

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  • Effects of climatic warming on the active layer Reviewed

    Nakano, T, Sone, T, Fukuda, M

    Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Permafrost   1   488 - 493   1993.7

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  • Measurement of methane flux in a tundra region near Tiksi, eastern Siberia in 1992

    Nakano, T, Fukuda, M, Sone, T, Nagaoka, D

    Low Temperature Science, Ser. A   52   63 - 70   1993.3

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    Language:English   Publisher:北海道大学低温科学研究所  

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  • 苫小牧演習林における自然積雪下の土壌凍結深観測

    石崎武志, 中野智子, 田中由美子

    低温科学資料集   52   11 - 24   1993.3

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  • 大雪山白雲小屋における気温変動特性

    中野智子, 曽根敏雄

    低温科学物理篇   51   173 - 181   1992.3

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  • 大雪山白雲小屋における気温変動特性 1987-1989年の気温観測資料

    曽根敏雄, 中野智子

    低温科学資料集   51   31 - 48   1992.3

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Books

  • 地理学事典

    日本地理学会( Role: Contributor第Ⅰ部5フィールドワーク「地域から地球環境を診断する」)

    丸善出版  2023.1  ( ISBN:9784621307939

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    Total pages:xxii, 818p   Language:Japanese  

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  • グローバル化による環境・社会の変化と国際連携

    中野智子( Role: Joint editor第1章 モンゴル国の気候変動と草原の変化)

    中央大学出版部  2022.3 

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    Total pages:280   Responsible for pages:1-36   Language:Japanese   Book type:Scholarly book

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  • 宇宙から見た地球 -日本と世界-

    中野 智子( Role: Joint author4 レナ川-永久凍土地帯を流れる大河-)

    朝倉書店  2010.2 

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    Total pages:135   Responsible for pages:4   Language:Japanese   Book type:Scholarly book

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MISC

Presentations

  • モンゴル国における植物バイオマスと降水量の時空間変動

    中野智子, Bat-Oyun T

    日本農業気象学会2023年全国大会  2023.3 

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    Event date: 2023.3    

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  • 自動撮影画像を利用したモンゴル半乾燥草原の植生動態の推定

    中野智子

    ( オンライン )   2022.3 

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  • モンゴル草原における可食植物の気候応答

    中野智子

    ( オンライン )   2021.3 

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  • Temporal and spatial variations in climate and vegetation in Mongolia Invited International conference

    Nakano, T

    The 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Environment in Central and North-East Asia  2019.9 

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  • モンゴル国における気候変動とその植生への影響評価

    中野智子, Munkhtsetseg E

    日本地理学会2019年秋季学術大会  ( 新潟 )   2019.9  日本地理学会

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  • Quantitative evaluation of grazing effect on semiarid grassland ecosystems in Mongolia International conference

    Nakano T, Bavuudorj G, Iijima Y, Ito T

    The 6th AGRIMBA-AVA Congress  ( Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia )   2019.6 

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  • モンゴル草原生態系に対する遊牧家畜の影響評価

    中野智子, 飯島慈裕, 伊藤健彦

    日本地理学会2018年春季学術大会  2018.3 

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  • Carbon dioxide exchange in semiarid grasslands of Mongolia

    Nakano T, Iijima Y, Ito T, Shinoda M

    The 4th Interdisciplinary Oxford Desert Conference  2017.6 

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  • インターバルカメラを用いた遊牧家畜による生態系への影響評価

    飯島慈裕, 伊藤健彦

    日本農業気象学会2017年全国大会  2017.3 

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  • 半乾燥草原生態系におけるCO2交換の年々変動とその要因

    篠田雅人

    日本農業気象学会2016年全国大会  2016.3 

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  • モンゴル半乾燥草原に夏季のCO2収支の年々変動

    篠田雅人

    日本土壌肥料学会2015年度京都大会  2015.9 

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  • Estimating carbon budget for a semiarid grassland of Mongolia during growing seasons

    日本農業気象学会2014年全国大会  2014.3 

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  • モンゴル半乾燥草原における生態系CO2交換量の年々変動の推定

    日本地球惑星科学連合  2013.5 

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  • 半乾燥草原におけるCO2フラックスの多点観測

    篠田雅人

    日本農業気象学会2012年全国大会  2012.3 

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  • 衛星マイクロ波土壌水分量プロダクトを用いた半乾燥草原の土壌水分量推定

    篠田雅人

    日本地理学会2012年春季学術大会  2012.3 

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  • 半乾燥地における植物地上部バイオマスの広域推定

    G. Bavuudorj, 篠田雅人

    日本農業気象学会関東支部例会  2011.12 

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  • 半乾燥草原におけるCO2フラックスの多点観測

    篠田雅人

    日本農業気象学会2011年全国大会  2011.3 

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Research Projects

  • Land rehabilitation based approach for livelihood support and peace building in Sahel region, West Africa

    Grant number:21H04377  2021.4 - 2026.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  Kyoto University

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    Grant amount: \41210000 ( Direct Cost: \31700000 、 Indirect Cost: \9510000 )

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  • 草食獣の大移動保全に向けたバイオロギング解析:種内・種間関係の影響評価

    Grant number:21H02216  2021.4 - 2025.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(B) 

    伊藤 健彦, 菊地 デイル万次郎, 中野 智子

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    Grant amount: \17290000 ( Direct Cost: \13300000 、 Indirect Cost: \3990000 )

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  • CO2 emission during non-growing season in a semiarid grassland

    Grant number:15K07814  2015.4 - 2019.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Chuo University

    Nakano Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \4940000 ( Direct Cost: \3800000 、 Indirect Cost: \1140000 )

    I measured the carbon dioxide flux with automatic closed chamber system through two winters from 2016 to 2018 in a semiarid grassland in Mongolia. During the mid-winter, CO2 efflux rates were almost zero. In spring and autumn, CO2 flux showed diurnal variation with soil temperature changes. In addition, a soil-thaw CO2 pulse was observed in 2018 spring.

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  • Integrating dryland disaster science

    Grant number:25220201  2013.5 - 2018.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 

    Shinoda Masato, OZAKI Takahiro, KIMURA Reiji, ITO Takehiko, OTANI Shinji, TAMURA Kenji, NAKANO Tomoko, MORINAGA Yuki, KOMIYAMA Hiroshi, MATSUSHIMA Dai, MIKAMI Masao, KURODA Seiichiro, NAGAMATSU Dai

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    Grant amount: \218920000 ( Direct Cost: \168400000 、 Indirect Cost: \50520000 )

    The nature-society system in drylands is among the most vulnerable to projected increasing frequency of various extreme weathers. Especially, drylands in middle-high latitudes have a severe environment coupled with an arid and cold climate and the livelihood has been jeopardized repeatedly by natural disasters that occur in such a climate. The disasters are characterized by so-called 4D (i.e., drought, dzud, dust storm, and desertification) that occur interactively. However, previous approaches towards elucidating disaster mechanisms and implementing the management have not fully been integrated, as they only dealt with each disaster separately.
    Given this background, the present project aimed (1) to relate the 4D disasters in dry Eurasia to each other in terms of causal mechanisms (especially, drought memory) and the time scales of their occurrence and (2) to develop comprehensive proactive countermeasures and make a policy recommendation for mitigating multi-disaster impacts.

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  • モンゴル草原における二酸化炭素交換に対する遊牧の影響の定量的評価

    2016.4 - 2017.3

    公益財団法人アサヒグループ学術振興財団  民間助成金 

    中野智子

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    遊牧が行われているモンゴル国の半乾燥草原において、実際に草原にいる家畜の数をカウントし、同時に炭素フラックスの測定を実施した。

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  • 半乾燥草原における二酸化炭素フラックスの多地点移動観測

    2010.4 - 2013.3

    文部科学省  科学研究費補助金(日本学術振興会・文部科学省)-基盤研究(C) 

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  • 半乾燥草原におけるCO2収支の時空間変動推定モデルの構築

    2010.4 - 2012.3

    中野智子

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  • モンゴル半乾燥草原における植物バイオマスと土壌水分の広域推定

    2010.4 - 2012.3

    鳥取大学乾燥地研究センター共同利用研究費 

    中野智子

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  • Dynamics of drought memory

    Grant number:20255001  2008 - 2012

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  Tottori University

    SHINODA Masato, KIMURA Reiji, TSUBO Mitsuru, ITO Takehiko, TAMURA Kenji, NAKANO Tomoko, IIJIMA Yoshihiro

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    Grant amount: \44980000 ( Direct Cost: \34600000 、 Indirect Cost: \10380000 )

    Recently, there has been a worldwide trend for intensified drought. Furthermore, in general, projections of climate models have suggested that the frequency and intensity of extreme weathers including droughts will likely increase in the future. Given this background, the present study investigated a series of mechanism of how meteorological drought (below-normal precipitation) affects soil moisture, vegetation and animals and made an assessment of vulnerability of the steppe vegetation in terms of sensitivity and resilience to drought.

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  • Response of grassland ecosystems to the global climate change

    Grant number:18510013  2006 - 2007

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)  Tokyo Metropolitan University

    NAKANO Tomoko, SHINODA Masato

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    Grant amount: \3410000 ( Direct Cost: \3200000 、 Indirect Cost: \210000 )

    In Mongolia,grassland covers approximately 80% of the country and comprises a major part of East Asian grasslands. The plants live in a semi-arid climate,and have often suffered from droughts.Global climate models predict that future increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will cause significant drying in this region during summer,caused by increased temperature and potential evaporation. Studies have indicated that the grasslands respond sensitively to changes in climate,particularly to changes in precipitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative dependence of photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration on temperature,moisture,radiation,and plant biomass in a semi-arid grassland. Toward this aim,we measured CO2 fluxes using a dosed-chamber technique in a grassland in Mongolia and in an environmental control equipment in Tottori University. As a result,we found that (1) values of gross primary production (GPP) were linearly related to live aboveground biomass (AGB) enclosed by the chamber, (2) GPP/AGB fit well a rectangular hyperbolic light-response curve for all the study periods,but when the air and soil were dry,considerable reduction in GPP was observed, (3) the GPP/AGB ratio was also expressed as individual functions of air temperature,vapor pressure deficit,and volumetric soil water content,and (4) values of Reco were expressed well as a bivariate function of soil temperature and soil moisture near the soil surface.

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  • Study on the resilience of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem from an experimental drought

    Grant number:16405002  2004 - 2006

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 

    SHINODA Masato, TSUNEKAWA Astushi, TAMURA Kenji, KIMURA Keiji, NAKANO Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \13300000 ( Direct Cost: \13300000 )

    Recently, droughts have become widespread in the Northern Hemisphere continent, having a substantial effect on Mongolian grasslands in the quantitative (such as biomass) and qualitative (such as phenology) aspects. In order to investigate the ecosystem response to such a drought, an artificial drought experiment (DREX) with a rainout shelter was conducted at Bayan Unjuul (105.95°E, 47.04°N) in the typical steppe region during the growing summer rainy season of 2005. The present drought experiment is the first attempt in the Asian dryland. Results showed that the drought manipulation with a dry spell that occurs statistically once in half-one century resulted in drastic reductions in aboveground biomass (AGB), soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen, but not in a significant reduction in underground biomass (UGB). This drought impact was followed by a quick recovery in the AGB in the late summer of 2006, likely on the basis of the UGB having a biomass several times as much as the AGB. However, the drought-sensitive species, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen have not yet revealed recovery as prior to the drought, suggesting the different time scales of responses for each ecosystem element.

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  • ゼニゴケ被覆面におけるメタン吸収の通年観測とメカニズム解明

    Grant number:15710015  2003 - 2005

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  若手研究(B)  首都大学東京

    中野 智子

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    Grant amount: \3700000 ( Direct Cost: \3700000 )

    大気中に存在するメタンガスは二酸化炭素に次ぐ温室効果気体であり、その濃度変化は地球の気候変動に大きな影響を与える。通常、湿地のような湿潤な土壌はメタンガスの放出源となっているが、研究代表者が過去に西シベリアの湿地で観測を行った際に、ゼニゴケで覆われている土壌においてだけは大気中のメタンが土壌に吸収されるという特質を発見した。本研究は日本にも広く分布するゼニゴケにも同様の性質があるのかどうか明らかにすることを、またそのメカニズムを解明することを目的とする。
    通年の野外観測を実施した結果、ゼニゴケ被覆面によるメタン吸収は場所によって大きく異なり、土壌が非常に湿潤な場合にのみメタン吸収が起こっていることが明らかになった。日本におけるゼニゴケの生育場所は、畑の縁辺部や民家の軒先など比較的湿潤ではあっても常時湛水していることは少なく、メタン吸収が起こるのは梅雨期など降水量の多い時期に限られることも分かった。このため、通年で見たときの自然状態でのメタン吸収能は比較的低いと結論付けることができる。メタン吸収のメカニズムを明らかにするため、野外観測と並行して室内実験も行った。実験では、ゼニゴケによるメタン吸収はメタン酸化菌による酸化反応ではなく、ヒドロキシルラジカルの化学反応によるものと示唆される結果が得られた。
    今年度は、本研究のきっかけとなった西シベリアでの観測結果をまとめた論文が、Soil Science and Plant Nutritionに掲載され、また現地観測の結果を中心とした学会発表を行った。

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  • Collection of 19^<th> century meteorological data in Japan and historical climatological analysis

    Grant number:15300305  2003 - 2005

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Tokyo Metropolitan University

    MIKAMI Takehiko, TSUKAHARA Togo, NAKANO Tomoko

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    Grant amount: \14600000 ( Direct Cost: \14600000 )

    This research aims at collecting and data-basing old meteorological instrumental data in early 19th century during which no official instrumental data were available in Japan, and the purpose of this research is to clarify the climatic variations in the final stage of Little Ice Age based on our database. Most of the previous studies which discuss the recent climatic variations use official meteorological records by Japan Meteorological Agency, which could get back to 1880's at the earliest.
    However, in global scale, there have been many studies which pointed out the rapid warming occurred at around 1850's and 1860's based on the instrumental data in Europe and North America. In our research project, we also found evidences for cooling in the 1830's and warming in the 1850's. These results indicate good agreement with those previous studies in European countries.

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  • 長期間の4次元同化データによる大気エネルギー収支解析

    Grant number:09227218  1997    

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  重点領域研究  東京都立大学

    増田 耕一, 谷本 陽一, 中野 智子, 松山 洋

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    Grant amount: \1100000 ( Direct Cost: \1100000 )

    アメリカ合衆国海洋大気庁環境予測センター(NCEP)の再解析(reanalysis)プロジェクトで4次元同化の方法で作られた全球格子点気象データを用い、大気によるエネルギー輸送の水平2次元ベクトルおよびその収束発散量を計算した。実績報告書作成の時点で、水蒸気に伴う潜熱の輸送については1973-1995の23年間、乾燥静的エネルギー輸送については1978-1980の3年間についての結果が得られている。
    長期間平均の水蒸気収束量を世界の大河川流域ごとに集計し河川流量のデータと比較することにより精度の検討をした。特にミシシッピ川流域については流域水収支の季節変化と年々変動の特徴も確認した。
    乾燥静的エネルギーの発散量の全球分布と、その量の値の大きいところの季節的移動を作図し、FGGE期間(1979)について他のデータセットを用いた結果と比較し、特徴が同じであることを確認した。

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